Diabetes mellitus, type I or juvenile diabetes, or insulin-dependent, is a chronic condition whereby the pancreas produces little or no insulin, thus bringing high blood glucose levels to a dangerous level in the human body. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus type II is a long-term chronic condition that is an impairment in the way body regulates and utilizes sugars (glucose) as a fuel (Eizirik et al.,2020). The insulin hormone is essential for transferring glucose from the bloodstream to the cells and controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels, which is necessary to prevent diabetes (Rahman et al., 2021). This essay discusses similarities and differences between diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2.
Both of these diseases are similar in their cure and prevention. Diabetes mellitus type 1 can be managed by using a good diet and exercise, just as well as diabetes mellitus type 2. These two actions could lower weight and increase activity in the body, thus increasing insulin sensitivity, which helps control blood sugar levels (Vujosevic et al., 2019). Similarly, the long-term complications that arise from these diseases are prevalent: neuropathy-nerve damage, retinopathy-eye damage, and nephropathy-kidney damage.
Apart from difference from definition of diabetes mellitus typ1 and 2, they are different in several ways ranging from the age group they mostly affect. Diabetes mellitus usually affects children and young adults, while diabetes mellitus type 2 usually affects adults (Jende et al., 2019). Diabetes mellitus type 2 is most common in adults because of their inactive lifestyle. Young adults and children are less likely to get type 2 diabetes since they are primarily active most of the time.
The risk factors of getting either disease form the foundation of the following difference. The causative agent of diabetes mellitus type 1 has not yet been discovered; thus, no cause has been established. There is currently no consensus on what causes the body to attack its pancreatic cells, preventing it from producing enough insulin. On the other hand, things like inactivity and weight put someone in danger of contracting diabetes mellitus type 2.
Another difference is based on comparing the symptoms, and the time they appear after one gets infected by either diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 1 appear quicker than type 2, which is why it comes early in life (Jende et al., 2019). Conversely, diabetes mellitus type 2 is a long-term disease since its symptoms appear more slowly or miss out completely. These symptoms include often urinating, losing weight without trying, having blurry vision, feeling thirsty more than usual, and having slow-healing sores.
Lastly, the other difference is how these two diseases are managed. Diabetes type 1 is managed by taking insulin into the body to control blood sugars, while diabetes mellitus type 2 has more ways than type 1, which include; medication, exercise, diet, and also use of insulin. Insulin is a common way to manage both diseases since it directly reduces sugars (glucose) from the bloodstream into the cells.
To conclude, both types of diabetes have been fairly compared from their similarities to their differences. The similarities of the diseases range from long-term implications and their cure and prevention. The variations have been described in detail and examined from a variety of angles, including their management, the age range most afflicted, risk factors, and the time symptoms manifest. The most recommended way to prevent infection of diabetes is through diet and exercise.
Eizirik, D. L., Pasquali, L., & Cnop, M. (2020). Pancreatic β-cells in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: different pathways to failure. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 16(7), 349-362.
Jende, J. M., Groener, J. B., Oikonomou, D., Heiland, S., Kopf, S., Pham, M.,… & Kurz, F. T. (2018). Diabetic neuropathy differs between type 1 and types 2 diabetes: insights from magnetic resonance neurography. Annals of neurology, 83(3), 588-598.
Rahman, M. S., Hossain, K. S., Das, S., Kundu, S., Adegoke, E. O., Rahman, M. A.,… & Pang, M. G. (2021). Role of insulin in health and disease: an update. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(12), 6403.
Vujosevic, S., Muraca, A., Alkabes, M., Villani, E., Cavarzeran, F., Rossetti, L., & De Cilla, S. (2019). Early microvascular and neural changes in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy. Retina, 39(3), 435-445.