Discussion of Diabetes Types I and II

Topic: Endocrinology
Words: 1345 Pages: 4


Types 1 and 2 diabetes are both caused by the body’s inability to retain and utilize glucose required for energy production. This sugar then increases in the bloodstream and rarely reaches the areas that require it, resulting in severe problems. Both kinds of diabetes are long-term illnesses that damage your body’s ability to control sugar levels. Glucose is indeed the energy that fuels one’s body’s cells, but it requires insulin as a key to enter them. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the absence of insulin production (Papatheodorou et al., 2018). It is the equivalent of not possessing a key. Individuals with type 2 diabetes do not react to insulin as much as they ought to, and they typically do not produce enough insulin later in the disease.

Although both chronic conditions are deadly, Type 2 diabetes mellitus generally strikes children and teenagers first, although it can affect adults as well. The immune system damages beta cells in type 1 diabetes, causing them to stop producing insulin. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, and it is commonly inherited. This disease affects around 5-10% of people with diabetes. Type 2, on the other hand, is much more prone to developing as individuals become older, but it can still strike youngsters (Papatheodorou et al., 2018). The pancreas generates insulin, but the body system is unable to utilize it properly. It appears that lifestyle variables have a part in the development. Type 2 diabetes strikes a broad majority of people with diabetes.

Additionally, even though most type 1 or type 2 diabetes indicators appear identical, they manifest in quite distinct ways. Many patients with type 2 Mellitus do not show physical signs for years, and their complications frequently progress gradually over time. Other people with type 2 diabetes have had no indications and do not realize they have the disease until it causes problems. Type 1 diabetes symptoms occur fast, usually over several weeks (Papatheodorou et al., 2018). This kind of diabetes, formerly known as diabetic ketoacidosis, generally develops during childhood and adolescence. It is possible, though, to get type 1 diabetes later on in life.

A Full Day Meal Plan

A diabetes-friendly diet is similar to the eating plan that physicians suggest for everyone. It emphasizes complete, minimally processed meals high in fiber, complex carbs in proportion, lean protein, and good fats while avoiding refined sugar and refined carbs. Following a diabetic meal plan can assist ensure that a person’s nutritional needs are met regularly. It can provide variation and, if required, aid with weight loss (Raveendran et al., 2018). A diabetic meal plan may also help a person track carbohydrates and calories while also making healthy eating more exciting by bringing some fresh concepts to the diet.


One grapefruit to provide antioxidants, folate and vitamins, one poached egg that offers vitamins, and half a tiny avocado spread over Ezekiel bread. Avocados are made up of around 73 percent water, 15% fat, 8.5 percent carbs (mainly fibers), and 2% proteins. This meal contains approximately 39 carbs, which equates to about 156 calories.


Mexican bowl will provide an excellent option for diabetic patients during the lunch hour. 2/3 cup low-sodium tinned pinto beans, 1 cup sliced spinach, 1/4 cup diced tomatoes, 1/4 cup chilies, 1 ounce (oz) of cheese, and a tablespoon (tbsp) of salsa to act as the sauce can act as a healthy meal. This meal contains a total of 120 calories, with the other nutrients such as vitamins, fats, fiber sodium and potassium, which are key to a sustainable lifestyle.


2 tbsp hummus with 20 1-gram baby carrots containing approximately 84 calories. Hummus, with 7.9 grams of protein per serving, is a fantastic source of plant-based protein.


Two ounces of ground lean poultry to provide protein, 1 cup prepared lentil penne spaghetti, 1.5 cups of veggie tomato paste (cook garlic, zucchini, greens, mushrooms, and eggplant added). This meal will have a total of about 140 calories, with all the other nutrients, including protein, fats, vitamins and carbs available in equal measures.


One ounce of hard cheese, or approximately the size of a thumb, has 120 calories, 8 g of protein, 6 g of fat, and 180 mg of calcium. A 1/2 cup of fresh cheese, such as 4% full-fat cottage cheese, has 120 calories, 14 grams of protein, 3 grams of saturated fat, and 80 milligrams of calcium.

Treatment Available

A variety of therapies can assist one in managing and treating their diabetes. Since everyone is unique, the therapy will be tailored to their specific needs. The treatment will depend on their form of diabetes and how effectively it manages their blood glucose levels. Other variables, such as other medical problems, prescription expenses, and daily routine, may influence the type of diabetic medication.

Insulin is essential for all patients with type 1 diabetes and some individuals with type 2 diabetes to control their sugar levels. A person’s insulin administration method may be determined by lifestyle, insurance policy, and personal preferences. The individual could decide that needles are not for them and would rather use another approach (Marín-Peñalver et al., 2016). Thus, patients need to discuss options with their doctors to determine which is best for them. The majority of people with diabetes use a syringe and needle, a stylus, or insulin therapy. Inhalers, injectable ports, and jet injectors are not as common as they once were.

Metformin NIH improved tablets are used to treat most patients with type 2 diabetes, with Metformin also available in a liquid state. Metformin helps a person’s body utilize insulin more effectively by lowering the quantity of glucose produced by one’s liver. This medication may assist one in losing weight, which is crucial for a sustainable society. Other oral medications decrease blood sugar levels in various ways (Marín-Peñalver et al., 2016). A person may want to add a diabetic prescription or utilize a combination therapy. Blending two or more diabetic medications lowers blood sugar levels more effectively than using just one.

Exercising is paramount for losing weight or keeping a healthy society. It also helps in the management of blood sugar levels before beginning or altering one’s exercise routine, it is imperative to consult one’s primary care physician to confirm that the activities are safe for them (Raveendran et al., 2018). In addition, monitoring one’s sugar level is an important means of managing the undesirable chronic condition. A blood glucose meter, a tiny at-home gadget that detects the quantity of sugar in a sample of one’s blood, is often used for monitoring. A continuous glucose monitor is an electrical device that uses a sensor implanted under one’s skin to record their blood glucose every few minutes. The system may provide warnings when levels are high or just too low, and data can be sent to a smartphone such as their phone.

Potential Medical Complication for Undiagnosed Cases

People with diabetes who may not control their condition are at risk of developing dangerously high glucose levels. These elevated levels can set off a chain reaction of effects, from mood swings to organ failure. Diabetic problems may affect nearly every area of people’s body, including their heart, kidneys, vasculature, eyes, neurotransmitters, intestinal system, gums, and teeth if left untreated. Thus, the failure to diagnose the condition may end in death in extreme situations. High blood glucose levels make a person more vulnerable to illnesses (Papatheodorou et al., 2018). If a person’s illnesses become more common or people take longer than average to heal from a cut or illness, they should visit a doctor.

Complications as A Result of Patient Non-Compliance

Diabetes, if left untreated, can result in life-threatening complications such as heart problems, nerve damage, visual impairment, renal failure, and mutilations. Inadequate hyperglycemia, greater use of healthcare resources, costly healthcare expenditures, and much higher death rates are linked to poor adherence (Raveendran et al., 2018). Most significantly, poor drug adherence has been related to an increased risk of death in T2D patients. Adults with diabetes have a 50% higher risk of death than adults without diabetes.


Marín-Peñalver, J. J., Martín-Timón, I., Sevillano-Collantes, C., & del Cañizo-Gómez, F. J. (2016). Update on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 7(17), 354-395.

Papatheodorou, K., Banach, M., Bekiari, E., Rizzo, M., & Edmonds, M. (2018). Complications of diabetes 2017.

Raveendran, A. V., Chacko, E. C., & Pappachan, J. M. (2018). Non-pharmacological treatment options in the management of diabetes mellitus. European Endocrinology, 14(2), 31-39.

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