The study aims to identify the relationship between a sedentary lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Another objective of the study is to measure the gender gap in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by applying Framingham risk scores (FRS). Moreover, the study is directed to identify the link between Framingham risk score and the outcomes of sedentary lifestyle such as physical inactivity and obesity among Saudi Arabian adults.
The study sample covers 2997 adults, including 968 males and 2029 females. Participants are chosen from 18 primary healthcare centers in Riyadh city from December 2014 to August 2015. During the interview, every patient received a detailed evaluation of their health conditions and medical history. Moreover, anthropological measurements and health indicators such as blood samples, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, blood cholesterol level, and high-density lipoprotein level were measured. The survey also included general information about participants’ age, gender, weight, and smoking status.
The results revealed that the number of male participants with intermediate-to-high FRS scores was two times that of females. Moreover, the mean FRS value among males was considerably higher compared to females (9.5 (±8.6) vs. 5.5 (±6.5) p < 0.001).
In this pattern, the most prevalent proportion was among males between 30-50 years. Although the mean waist circumference of males was higher than females, females indicated a higher mean body mass index ([29.6 (±6.4) vs. 31.4 (±6.5) (p < 0.001)]). Risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and smoking were primarily observed among 30-50 years old participants regardless the age and gender. The highest risk was found among females older than 50 years. The average reported sitting time was 360 (±218) minutes per day, and the highest duration was noted among males. The lifestyle and occupation have not shown a significant impact on the study.
To conclude, the results indicated that a sedentary lifestyle was related to the risk of the development of cardiovascular diseases. The most vulnerable group was females beyond the age of 50. Nevertheless, the highest mortality and morbidity levels related to lifestyle are indicated among Saudi males.
Authors: AlQuaiz A.M., Siddiqui A.R., Kazi A., Batais M.A., Al-Hazmi A.M. Title: Sedentary lifestyle and Framingham risk scores: a population-based study in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia Journal: BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2019; 19: 88.