Immunology Issues and Immune System

Topic: Immunology
Words: 598 Pages: 2

How the Immune System Protects Against Pathogens

The immune system provides body protection by either generating cells that attack the disease directly or by making specific proteins known as antibodies. Antibodies bind to antigens and attract cells that engulf and kill pathogens (Richtel, 2019). Lymphocytes, also known as B and T cells, are the primary cells of the immune system. The white blood cell, often known as a leukocyte, is an important component of the human immune system. Leukocytes hunt for invaders in the blood and tissues within the body. They send out signals and start an immunological assault when they identify a foreign material. These sickness-fighting cells are produced in the bone marrow and maintained in a variety of locations throughout the body, including the adenoids or tonsils.

The Similarities and Differences Between Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems

Innate immunity is a quick reaction mechanism that could be activated in reaction to foreign infections or threats to the body. Both animals and plants have innate immune cells. Physical and chemical barriers, phagocytic leukocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and plasma proteins comprise the innate immune system. From the other perspective, adaptive (or acquired) immunity is a protection that develops after being exposed to antigens, either from a disease or through a vaccine. In case the innate immune response is insufficient to control an infection, this component of the immune system is triggered. In reality, the acquired response activation is impossible without input from the innate immune system. Adaptive immunity might give long-term protection, perhaps for the rest of a person’s life. For instance, somebody who recovers from scarlet fever is now immune to it for the rest of their lives. In some situations, like chickenpox, it does not give lifetime protection. The adaptive immune system always consists of B cells and T cells. With the help of the evolution process, innate immunity stands for resisting the infections that an individual has from birth as a result of his genetic or constitutional make-up. On the other hand, adaptive immunity refers to an individual’s resistance to infectious foreign substances that develops or adapts over time.

Immunological Memory and Why It Is Important

Last but not least, this type of memory means that the immune system may recall the antigens that previously triggered it and mount a stronger immune response when confronted with the same antigen a second time. However, to be more specific, clonal selection is required for immunologic memory. When exposed to an antigen, B cells identify it by membrane antibodies that attach to the antigen and are triggered to quickly grow, with offspring clones developing into plasma cells and memory B cells with the same antigen specificity. To neutralize the antigens, plasma cells release a large number of antibodies. Plasma cells die soon after clearing the antigens due to their limited lifetime (Richtel, 2019). Memory cells live a long time and remain in the body. To neutralize the antigens, plasma cells release a large number of antibodies. Plasma cells die soon after clearing the antigens due to their limited lifetime. Memory cells live a long time and remain in the body. However, the biggest importance of the immunological memory is that it can prevent an organism from not only the symptoms, but also from the causes of widespread diseases. This is because from the first glance, the more people seek, the weaker is their immunological system. However, the practice and theory clearly state that large number of diseases can enrich the cells with important components of memory that will help them protect the organism from future infections.


Richtel, M. (2019). An elegant defense: The extraordinary new science of the immune system: A tale in four lives (1st ed.). HarperLuxe.

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