Type 2 diabetes is a sign of excessive sugar in a person’s blood. This type of diabetes directly violates the body’s use of sugar. The disease is mainly transmitted due to a lack of insulin, which is necessary for the pancreas. Thus, the lack of insulin directly affects how the body functions. In addition, medicine cannot treat type 2 diabetes, and it remains for a person’s whole life. Especially, a person can easily control the use of unique methods to keep the body stable.
The Pathophysiology and Epidemiology
Type 2 diabetes is a common disease globally, so drugs to stabilize the body are available. Importantly, it is necessary to use medication for such a disease, as improper treatment or no medication at all can be fatal for a person (1). If diabetes is not treated, it often leads to problems with the heart and vascular system. Particularly, it is essential to take special medicines to compensate for the lost substances in the human body. Obesity is not the main characteristic of people with diabetes in the abdominal area (1). Due to excess weight, substances in the body do not receive individual elements, which can often cause inflammation, making it possible for type 2 diabetes to develop.
About 15% of people in Australia today have type 2 diabetes (3). In particular, various studies show that very often, diabetes was detected already in hospitals when people got there with complications. The paradox of modern diabetes is that it can be silent for a long time, but at one moment, such exposure can lead to negative consequences (1). This is confirmed by Diabetes Australia, which conducted a study investigating how diabetes stays in people and who is prone to it (2). The result of the study was that men in Australia have more diabetes than women. Especially men were most often diagnosed with diabetes in the hospital.
Diabetes is a heterogeneous disorder that primarily occurs due to the reaction of various substances among themselves. Considering the context of Australia, it is worth saying that the prevalence of diabetes in them is much lower, but not at the zero level. First, the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes manifests itself in the fact that a person cannot independently produce insulin, that is, the pancreas (1). The pathophysiology is displayed because the disorder occurs in other human organs, for example, the liver. Just as in the pancreas, there is an inevitable failure in the substances produced. A shift in glucose production is characteristic of the liver in diabetes.
Pathophysiology is manifested in a decrease in β-cell function. Decreasing cell function directly worsens the body’s condition, so diabetes was discovered in many Australian populations precisely because the human body was significantly weakened and did not function well (1). Therefore, many Australians could only realize their diagnosis when the person’s condition was critical. This is where the problem of diabetes and its pathophysiology manifests itself, since the signs of the disease are very often simply undetectable, so a person can live without even suspecting what is happening to him.
The epidemiology of type 2 diabetes is mainly manifested in the fact that today the death rate from diabetes ranks 7th in the world. Some scientists are ready to discuss diabetes as an epidemic spreading in many countries (1). In particular, in Australia, many researchers are talking about an outbreak since the percentage of diseases is increasing. Each year, around 700,000 people in Australia end up in hospitals with a diagnosis of diabetes (2). That should consider that this number is still growing and is not visible because a person may not notice obvious signs of the disease and discover it when the condition is critical.
The Implications for Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes affects the body significantly negatively because it weakens it. Many people, at any period of their life, can often experience fatigue and incomprehensible feelings due to such a disease. The main impact on life primarily depends on the stage of disease development. Because the last step usually does not allow a person to function normally (3). A person is constantly stressed and in pain due to ineffective drugs. Medicines may often not help or anesthetize the body in the previous stages. In particular, at all stages of diabetes, people must change their diet and switch to a specific diet (2-3). Such a transition is based on rejecting sweet foods that generally contain a lot of glucose.
Implications across Life Stages
A chronic condition called type 2 diabetes alters how a child’s body uses sugar as fuel. Without therapy, the disease causes blood sugar levels to rise, which can have detrimental long-term effects. Adults are more prone to type 2 diabetes; In fact, it was previously known as adult-onset diabetes. According to self-reported data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (9) 2017–18 National Health Survey, 5.3% of adults in Australia over the age of 18 had type 2 diabetes in 2017–18, which is around 1 million people. But more young people are developing type 2 diabetes as a result of the rising obesity rates among children.
The Morbidity, Prognosis, and Mortality
Mortality from type 2 diabetes is incredibly high both worldwide and in Australia. Considering the global indicator, about 8% of every 100 people die from this disease yearly. This number can often change and depend on what region has been marked (4). Considering Australia, it is worth saying that here the indicator per 100,000 people is much higher. The mortality among Australian population accounts for about 16% of deaths from diabetes (4). This information was provided by Diabetes Australia, which tracks all events and keeps statistics. High mortality in Australia and the world is often caused by people not being able to afford ongoing treatment (8). Medicines are expensive enough that systematic treatment is not achievable for many, which is why many initiatives try to help people with this diagnosis.
Impacts on Society
The consequences of diabetes for society are different and are mainly manifested in the fact that there is a special allocation of money. Considering the context of Australia, it is worth mentioning that every year a large amount of money is allocated to finance many programs related to diabetes (2-5). Cash is often assigned to subsidies or payments for people as the government tries to help people with medicine. To maintain one person with diabetes for the Australian authorities comes out to about 5000 US dollars (6). However, it is worth understanding that these estimates depends on the stage of diabetes and what complications can follow (5). Therefore, the governments are set out to make life easier for people because the medicines needed for humans are pretty expensive.
The Impact on the Provision of Emergency Health
Due to the high prevalence of diabetes, the medical system is developing as well. The main task for doctors is to detect the disease as soon as possible and for treatment (6). A significant expenditure of money in the medical field occurs precisely on the patient’s hospitalization. Great attention is paid in the medical field to avoid complications that can directly arise in a person with diabetes (6-7). People use medicine to try to make life easier for people with diabetes by spending less money on their treatment. A person with diabetes in Australia spends about twice as much money on their treatment than the average person (7). Many health care organizations attempt to improve the situation of patients with diabetes.
The situation of people with diabetes is much worse for many reasons. Certain countries, such as Australia, try to raise the lives of such patients and help them financially. In particular, the development of the system of providing medicine and hospitalization of such patients helps to develop and positively influence people. It is fundamental to understand what diabetes is and how it affects the human body because it is vital for ordinary people to help others and help their lives.
In conclusion, type 2 diabetes is a disease caused by various factors. The body’s ineffective use of the insulin it generates is what leads to type 2 diabetes. The biggest risk factors for this form of diabetes are being overweight and not getting enough exercise. This type of diabetes was previously exclusively seen in adults, but it is now increasingly impacting kids. The disease is commonly spread among the Australian population, which creates an urgent need for the national health care system to address the problem.
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