Stem Cells Research – The Biggest Breakthrough in the History of Medical Science

Topic: Healthcare Research
Words: 660 Pages: 2

The Abstract

The research paper includes a brief sketch of the history of stem cells, touching on their first mention and prominent research. The focus is on the significance of stem cells for oncology, parenchymal organ treatment. In addition, attention is drawn to the recent IPSC study from donors with Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, stem cells act as essential research in the history of medicine.

The Background

The development of medicine is an ongoing process, even though the basic assumptions about the structure of the human body have existed for a long time. Nevertheless, genetic and molecular researches are currently relevant. Important discoveries include insulin, the first antibiotic, and the deciphering of the genome. In the mansion stands the most prominent research – stem cells. The first mention of stem cells was more than a hundred years ago (which is not much by the standards of history), but already last year, the second person in the world to be cured of HIV with the help of stem cells donation. Studying the nature of stem cells and their implementation for therapeutic purposes is a breakthrough in medicine, which opened a new chapter in history.

History of Stem Cells

The term stem cell first appeared at the Berlin conference in 1909. A. Maximov presented them in his report on the lymphocytic origin of blood elements. Thanks to Maximov’s ideas of blood histogenesis, other theories were developed; in particular, Arthur Pappenheim became famous. His paper in hematological oncology made it possible to determine the basic properties of stem cells further. In the 1960s, stem cells acquired a characteristic: self-renewal and potency. In 1963, the study results were published, according to which each stem cell produced lump cell growth. A theory was developed to prevent cancer growth using stem cells – bone marrow transplantation.

After several successful cure cases with the help of stem cells, the study of their therapeutic value began to develop actively. Hematological research spread to Germany and France, and later aboard was established to focus exclusively on oncology treatment. Between the 70s and 90s, stem cell research yielded significant results: autologous cell transplantation, embryonic and neural stem cell production in vitro, the first line of human ESCs. In 1999, Science magazine recognized stem cells as the third most crucial event in biology after deciphering the double helix of DNA and the Human Genome Project.

ESCs have been used to treat a dozen diseases, including kidney failure, leukemia, and other blood diseases, some cases of cancer, myocardial infarction. Special attention is given to solving infertility through the successful growth of eggs from table cells (the same researchers have grown kidney, adrenal, and germ cells), treatment of viral and bacterial diseases, and acute deficiencies. Separately, ESCs are singled out for the treatment of cancer cases. Thus, it is likely that stem cells will soon be used to treat a multitude of instances.

The Literature in Review

One of the diseases to watch out for is Alzheimer’s disease. This disease is caused by many factors: genetic heredity, oxidative stress in the mitochondrial chain, and environmental influences. Consequently, there is an urgent need to study the cells of people with this disorder for subsequent use as a therapy. In October, a group of researchers from the University of Alabama obtained two IPSC lines from the B-lymphocytes of two patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), homozygous for the e3 APOE allele (Lee, et al, 2021). Thanks to karyotypic analysis, the ISSCs have a normal karyotype, so they can be used as cultures to search for new treatments for Alzheimer’s disease.

The Discussion

Such in-depth studies on obtaining ICPs from donors with various pathologies are published in peer-reviewed journals for scientific and general coverage. Based on these results, new experimental techniques for improving human well-being and treatment are possible. The study of stem cells is an international idea because of their high therapeutic and scientific value. It allows stem cells to become an effective treatment in the future.

Work Cited

Lee, Jihye, et al. “Generation of inducible pluripotent stem cell lines from Alzheimer’s disease patients with APOE e3/e3 genotype.” Stem Cell Research, vol. 55, 2021.

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