Reasons and Treatment of Kidney Stones

Topic: Nephrology
Words: 330 Pages: 3


Mrs. P complains of severe pain in the left-back below the ribs, blood in urine, and an increased urge to urinate. Mrs. reports that her diet mainly consists of proteins, and she takes high amounts of salt. The patient is obese and reports that she takes one glass of water daily after her routine workout. In addition, the patient states that she usually experiences nausea and vomiting. She has a history of hypertension and diabetes type II. She is currently on hypertensive and diabetes medication. On physical examination, there was tenderness on the posterior side of the left abdomen. Investigations revealed high levels of calcium and uric acid in the blood. CT scan, ultrasound, and abdominal X-ray indicated small stones in the left ureter.

Anatomical Causes

Excess amounts of calcium, oxalate, phosphate and uric acid in the body or a high urine concentration result in crystals in the kidneys. Small stones get lodged in the kidneys. The movement of the stones causes injury and bleeding. (Khan et al., 2016). Blockage of the urinary system also causes severe pain and an increased urge to urinate. The proximity of the urinary system to the gastrointestinal system initiates nausea and vomiting.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis):
    • Formation of hard deposits in the kidney (Winkelman, 2016).
  • Pyelonephritis:
    • Infection of the kidney is caused by bacteria.
  • Renal Infarct:
    • It is caused by the disrupted flow of blood to the kidney as a result of emboli.


From the analysis of the signs, symptoms, and examination results, the patient is suffering from kidney stones.

Treatment Plan

Pain relievers such as Ibuprofen or fentanyl for severe pain. Alpha-blockers are prescribed to relax the urinary tract muscles to allow the smooth movement of kidney stones. The patient should be encouraged to increase their intake of water, fruits, and vegetables. Exercising and a balanced diet. In case of medical treatment failure, the stones can be removed through surgery, sound waves, or the use of scopes.

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