End-Stage Renal Disease: The Case Study

Topic: Nephrology
Words: 976 Pages: 3

Clinical Manifestations of Mr. C

The normal body mass index should be between 18.5 and 24.9, while Mr. C has 45.1, meaning that he is obese. Mr. C displays elevated kidney function because, from the medical results, serum creatinine level is higher than normal. Higher levels of creatinine serum are caused by an infection in the kidney, stones in the kidney that block the urinary tract, inflammation in the kidney structures that filter blood, or kidney failure. The level of cholesterol is high, and one of the major causes of that is obesity. Having a BMI of more than 30 and having an HDL of below 30 shows that one is at risk of having kidney failure. Mr. C is experiencing signs of renal failure because of his increased shortness of breath whenever he starts doing an activity; his ankles have been swelling and pruritus for more than six months. Mr. C is hypertensive because his level of blood pressure is slightly higher than normal, which should be between 60 and 100. When fasting food glucose is higher than normal, it shows that one is diabetic or prediabetic, as in the case with Mr. C.

Health Risks for Obesity as a Concern for Mr. C

Mr. C is at risk of getting diabetes because his fasting food glucose is higher than normal cellulitis, and he is undergoing renal failure that requires dialysis. Leading a healthy lifestyle is the only way he will lose weight and reduce the chances of getting diabetes. Healthy living includes reducing the amount of sugary and processed foods eaten per day (Allison & Fouladkhah, 2018). Mr. C should ensure that he eats low-glycemic foods to help manage the level of sugar in the blood. Finally, daily aerobic activities can help in maintaining or losing body weight; it is recommended to at least do the activity for at least two hours a day. Bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention if he would be able to adjust to the changes and to enable him to lose some weight naturally. Mr. C should be capable of implementing the terms and conditions that come with the surgical process.

Assessment of Mr. C’s Functional Health Pattern

Mr. C thinks that he is destined to be fat, and the idea makes him less confident about losing weight. He is content with his situation of being obese, making it difficult for doctors to change his mind about reducing weight. He does not have any problem in monitoring heath directions, he follows instructions and completes his doses, but he is not careful with his diet. He is accustomed to performing only office work, sitting the whole day with minimum movement; he is not for the idea of physical activities, saying that he is not used to them. Mr. C can cope up with stress because it is something he has been dealing with since he was a kid, a bonus for his health. Mr. C is worried about his kidneys failing, but he says he will not be able to change his lifestyle because he thinks that it will be more painful. Having sleeping apnea might hinder him from doing the physical activities meant to help him lose weight. He should get enough sleep to help him get enough energy for exercise.

Staging of End-Stage Renal Disease

End-stage renal disease is the final permanent stage of a prolonged kidney illness. Mr. C shows some signs like shortness of breath, especially while carrying out simple tasks, and his ankles have been swelling. Symptoms of hypertension have been displayed because his heart rate is higher than normal at times especially when performing activities. Hypertension increases pressure in the small vessels of the kidney, which leads to damage; the destruction of the vessels hinders our body from undertaking their blood-filtering activity (Kambal et al., 2018). He has displayed these symptoms for the last six months with minimum medical care. Difficulty in sleeping is another sign of renal disease, and Mr. C has said something about him having sleeping apnea. High blood pressure, diabetes, and obstruction of the urinary truck are some factors that caused Mr. C’s kidneys to fail. With diabetes, the body is unable to break down sugar and high sugar content in the blood damages the nephrons. Mr. C is in the fifth stage, which is the final stage of renal disease.

Patient Education

End-Stage Renal Disease is a condition where the kidneys stop functioning, and that leads to frequent dialysis or kidney transplant to maintain life. Mr. C is both hypersensitive and diabetic; he has to control these conditions to prevent End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Both situations should be controlled by treatment using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs); ACE inhibitors and ARBs are also recommended nephrotoxic drugs (Hsieh et al., 2020). It is better to avoid eating too much potassium foods like bananas, tomatoes, or chocolates because they add to sugar levels, which is harmful to someone with diabetes. He should also control his blood pressure by evading stress, exercising, and eating a healthy diet. Massage, reducing salt intake, and movement will help Mr. C overcome his edema.

Resources Available for ESRD Patients

Certain resources for ESRD patients include free education on the proper lifestyle and appropriate diet for them. There are dialysis centers with links and extensive information about anything concerning kidneys, how they function, and the causes of their failure. These patients use a normal transport system, but they are not recommended to travel alone (Albdah et al., 2019). Other patients have their transport fee during dialysis covered in their medical policies to help cut the costs. They are allowed to have special lunch at work and have free time for exercise. The living conditions of these people are not common because they need, different diet, closer monitoring, especially with hypertension and diabetes.


Albdah, A., Alanbari, M., & Alwadi, F. (2019). Choanal atresia repair in pediatric patients: is the use of stents recommended? Cureus. Web.

Allison, A., & Fouladkhah, A. (2018). Adoptable interventions, human health, and food safety considerations for reducing sodium content of processed food products. Foods, 7(2), Web.

Hsieh, M., How, C., Hsieh, V., & Chen, P. (2020). Preadmission antihypertensive drug use and sepsis outcome: impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Shock, 53(4), 407-415. Web.

Kambal NH, M., Bani, IA, & Sabahelkhier, MK. (2018). Study kidney functions, body weight, and blood pressure in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). International Journal of Biochemistry & Physiology, 3(1). Web.

Reasons and Treatment of Kidney Stones
Dialysis Prevention With Self-Care and Patient Education