Urinary System and Kidney Disease

Topic: Nephrology
Words: 838 Pages: 3

The urinary system plays one of the essential roles in the human body. Any failures and interruptions in this system lead to severe discomfort or pain. Even minor deviations in the work of the urinary system are life-threatening. Therefore, to diagnose the problem in time, one should know about possible diseases and dangerous changes. Various pathogens of infectious diseases are the cause of diseases of kidneys and urinary system. Therefore, every person who cares about their health should pay attention to modifiable individual risk factors (Tan & Chlebick, 2016). This means that it is necessary to perform actions within the limits of the person’s capabilities to influence the possibility of the onset and development of the disease.

It was necessary to demonstrate new and current methods of treating diseases of this group. Therefore, it was decided to review the article by Tan and Chlebik (2016). In it, the authors discuss the current trends in the field of treatment. As they note, minimizing the negative consequences of diseases associated with the urinary system is possible only if one turns to the latest research (Tan & Chlebick, 2016). The article researchers conclude that antibiotic therapy carried out in modern hospitals and clinics contributes to recovery, and therefore remains relevant as a treatment strategy.

Congenital diseases of the urinary system include problems acquired during pregnancy or inherited issues. Kidney diseases and malformation of the bladder or ureters are what meant in this case. Usually, these diseases are treated with surgery, but the latter can be avoided if the patient is not bothered with negative symptoms (Tan & Chlebick, 2016). Acquired problems include problems that have appeared due to the penetration of infection, trauma, and external influences. The primary diseases of this nature include cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, urethritis, stone disease, neoplasms, enuresis.

The female body is more likely to be susceptible to cystitis due to the unique structure of the urethra. An inflammatory process in the bladder characterizes the pathology due to the penetration of infection. Often, harmful organisms enter the internal organ through the intestines or genitals. Cystitis is typical for inactive people because it serves as a favourable breeding ground for bacteria when urine stagnation occurs. The authors mention oral antibiotics as an effective direction for treating this disease (Tan & Chlebick, 2016). However, they note that in some cases, early imaging may be required, as well as emergency measures of assistance. In practical terms, the information received will allow me to be less skeptical about scanning the body with ultrasound and using recent research in treatment. I will be able to warn my friends so that when asking for help, they will tell in detail about how the course of the disease went earlier.

Metabolic disorders and dehydration of the body can provoke the formation of stones in the bladder (urolithiasis). Pathology is characteristic of people of any age and occurs even in newborns. Different stones may arise; some of them are hazardous, namely oxalate ones. Urolithiasis occurs with impaired metabolism, dehydration of the body, lack of sunlight (Alelign & Petros, 2018). Often, pathology is observed in patients who have chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The article’s authors write that ultrasound examination allows doctors to detect a tumour in the bladder, while this symptom is also characteristic of urolithiasis (Tan & Chlebick, 2016). Accordingly, such a relatively new method of analyzing the patient’s health condition will help detect the disease and determine its treatment.

Polyps are growths that form on the mucous membrane of an internal organ; they gradually increase and reach significant sizes. In most cases, the pathology does not pose a danger and does not manifest itself; therefore, treatment is not prescribed. If there is a significant increase in the build-up, cystoscopy is used to restore the normal outflow of urine (Kobayashi et al., 2021). Since polyps are the same inflammation and lumps, the ultrasound research method will also be appropriate and effective.

To identify the pathological process, complex diagnostics are assigned, which includes laboratory and instrumental studies. A general urine test is performed to determine the infection or virus that became the root cause of the pathology. The patient undergoes an ultrasound scan of the organs located in the small pelvis (Tan & Chlebick, 2016). If there is a discharge of blood during urination, then the patient is sent for excretory urography. Cytological examination of urine and cystoscopy are performed. In case of suspicion of cancer, tests for tumor markers and computed tomography are prescribed.

The results of the analysis carried out by the authors correlate with the materials studied during the classes. In particular, the mechanisms of the formation of infections of the urinary system are described similarly. This article provides similar statistics on gender prevalence of diseases as found in educational materials. It became clear to me that individual risk factors are something that cannot be ignored. At the same time, now I understand that an exacerbation of a disease of this kind may lead to the need to call an emergency aid.


Alelign, T., & Petros, B. (2018). Kidney stone disease: An update on current concepts. Advances in Urology, 2018, 1-12. Web.

Kobayashi, H., Iga, K., Kato, K., Kato, A., Otsuka, K., Soga, E., Konno, H., Nakayama, S., & Shiojima, S. (2021). Abnormal urine outflow from the ureteral orifice on cystoscopy following vaginal stump suture in total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy, 10(1), 25–29. Web.

Tan, C. W., & Chlebicki, M. P. (2016). Urinary tract infections in adults. Singapore Medical Journal, 57(9), 485–490. Web.

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