Genetics and Neurotransmitters
This is a genetically complicated disease that results from the consequences of numerous genes interacting with other aspects of the environment. Investigations accomplished in the past have revealed that TS is inherited as a dominant gene, and parents have about a 50% chance of passing the gene on to their children. In terms of gender, the boys who possess the gene are three to four times more likely to display the symptoms than girls. In some situations, TS can be influenced by symptoms of TS abnormal metabolism of a dopamine chemical. Genes in the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways have been the most neurotransmitters (Clarke & Eapen, 2021). During adolescence, boosts in the neurochemical gamma-aminobutyric acid improve the vocal and physical tics related to the disorder.
Neuroanatomical Changes and Therapy
Tourette affects the basal ganglia’s brain area, controlling body movements. This cause affects chemicals and nerve cells, enabling them to communicate adequately. Impairments to the nonverbal memory occur and lead to decreased functioning due to severity. Brain damage results in verbal and fine motor coordination difficulties coordination. Children diagnosed with this stage during development are likely to face challenges while communicating, which affects the cognitive parts. They originate from the brain since it controls speech and other controlled movements. Comprehensive behavioural intervention for tics (CBIT) is the most appropriate therapy for controlling Tourette’s syndrome (Dyke et al., 2021). It incorporates approaches like relaxation training, habit reversal therapy, and emotional identity in situations that worsen tic severity.
Current Theories of Causation and Cultural Factors
Several causes have been associated with Tourette syndrome, such as environmental exposures during pregnancy. Streptococcus bacterium, which causes various infections, can be responsible for neurological changes related to Tourette syndrome (Hsu et al., 2021). Neurochemical abnormalities such as dopamine and serotonin are significant causes. Cultural factors leading to this disorder include rule-governed forms of languages whereby infants think about how to communicate effectively and develop self-defence mechanisms.
Clarke, R. A., & Eapen, V. (2021). LRRTM4 terminal exon duplicated in family with tourette syndrome, autism and ADHD. Genes, 13(1), 66. Web.
Dyke, K., Jackson, G., & Jackson, S. (2021). Non-invasive brain stimulation as therapy: Systematic review and recommendations focused on treating Tourette syndrome. Experimental Brain Research, 240(2), 341-363. Web.
Hsu, C., Wong, L., & Lee, W. (2021). Immunological dysfunction in tourette syndrome and related disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(2), 853. Web.