It has a rounded or oval shape and a structure typical of other citrus species. Such a fruit, which comes from the upper ovary, is called hesperidium (one of the varieties of berry-like fruits). Thus, the fruit of an orange is a fruit and a berry. Sweet orange has a very pleasant, refreshingly sweet, and sour taste and is suitable for eating. The pulp of an orange consists of 9-13 dividing lobules covered with a thin film. Each lobule contains many juice-filled sacs, which are formed from the inner epidermis of the carpels. The taste of orange pulp can be sweet, sweet-sour, or bitter. When biting the orange segment, one can feel that essence popping right on the tongue. At first, the taste may seem to sour, but it reveals its sweetness rapidly and spreads around one’s mouth in split seconds.
An orange’s smooth or porous peel has a thickness of up to 5 mm, and its upper layer, flavedo (peel), contains many rounded glands filled with essential oil. The white spongy layer covering the peel from the inside is called albedo. Due to its loose structure, the orange pulp lags behind the skin quite easily. Depending on the variety, the fruits can be rounded, oval, oval-elongated, pear-shaped, or tapering to the base. By the thickness of the skin, they are differentiated between skinned and thin-skinned, and by the nature of the outer layer – with a smooth or porous surface. When touching the orange, one can feel its smooth but uneven skin. It can be compared to palping goosebumps on a human body.
Oranges of different types and varieties have various shades of skin and flesh, depending on the amount of coloring pigment. Light oranges include two varieties: ordinary and umbilical. They have flesh and skin of lighter shades (yellow, light orange, or bright orange). Kinglet or red oranges have dark orange or burgundy flesh. They remind vibrant color blots, especially when they grow on trees, and one can observe their vivid flesh contrasting the greenness.
The average weight of sweet oranges is 150-200 grams, with a fruit size of 60-70 mm. Weight and dimensions may vary depending on the type, variety, and ripening conditions. Its weight can be compared to that of an apple. As per the shape – one can imagine holding a tennis ball or even a ball of yarn. The orange’s size and shape are really unique because they depend on the variety. Some fruits do not form seeds, but most oranges still contain many fruit seeds arranged in slices, one above the other. The first torn crusts open the pale-yellow backs of the lobules with long empty pores, and the dryish flesh peels off.
Because of the pleasant citrus aroma, oranges are actively used for flavoring tea, coffee, alcoholic beverages, and tobacco. The most valuable essential oil is extracted from oranges, which are widely used in the cosmetology and perfume industries. Orange essential oil is loved by many aromatherapists and is used in folk medicine to treat many diseases. Due to the delicious and fragrant pulp, orange fruits are used in cooking in fresh form and for making marmalade and jams. Candied fruits are prepared from the peel, and liqueurs are insisted on it. Orange juice is used as an independent drink and a component in producing fruit drinks and alcoholic beverages.