Medication Treatment of Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychosis

Topic: Pharmacology
Words: 1219 Pages: 3

Disorders

Description of the Psychopharmacological Medication Agent

Recognizing pathophysiological experiences in the patient’s brain, the clinical presentation, the causative factors, the pharmacodynamics of the psychotropic medications, and other reactions. There are effective pharmaceutical and non-pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; patients and their families access to these services is the main barrier to recovery. This is due to the effects of the medications recognizing is necessary for the successful pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and other mental disorders. Drugs can have comparable pharmacological effects despite being chemically distinct. For the purposes of this discussion, the primary focus will be made on antipsychotic drugs. Chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, and haloperidol are the primary medications for treating mental health issues. World Health Organization-recommended medications for psychosis include amitriptyline, flupenthixol, and fluoxetine (Funk et al., 2020). The Food and Drug Administration recently conducted a study of the methods used to treat mental diseases, and their findings suggested that a combination of psychosocial and pharmaceutical techniques produced the best outcomes (Funk et al., 2020).

Drug Classification

Aripiprazole is prescribed to adults and adolescents over the age of 13 who are experiencing the adverse effects of schizophrenia, a mental disorder characterized by disorganized or abnormal thought processes, a lack of interest in normal activities, and extreme or inappropriate or emotional reactions. Used alone or in combination with other medications, it helps adults, teenagers, and children older than ten years with bipolar disorder to old cope with the effects of manic or mixed episodes (which include both manic and depressive symptoms) (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). When the depression symptoms are too severe for the antidepressant to handle on its own, aripiprazole is administered in combination with the antidepressant. Children with autism ages 6 to 17 are also candidates for aripiprazole therapy (a developmental problem that causes difficulty communicating and interacting with others). Aripiprazole can potentially reduce aggressive, tantrum-like, and mood-swinging behaviors in children with autism.

Medication Mechanism of Action

Half-life of a drug is an especially important consideration when talking about administering and using medication. The half-life is defined as the duration of a drug’s effects. Knowing the half-life of a drug will help you determine its steady-state concentration and elimination rate. The recommended administration schedule for flupentixol is every two to four weeks through intramuscular injection, which forms a half-life of 3–8 days (Keepers et al., 2020). In a flash, cis Z flupenthixol’s decapitating ester is hydrolyzed. Flupenthixol has no pharmacologically-active metabolites; after three months, it reaches a steady state (Keepers et al., 2020). The exact time at which an initial drug would have cleared from the system before the introduction of another drug, or the lowest amount of drug left at a given time that cannot create a meaningful effect when it interacts with a new drug, can be determined by knowing its half-life. Toxicity is an additional factor to consider.

 Demonstrates the concept of a half-life

Dosing

Care must be taken when treating a patient with antipsychotic medication to avoid unwanted side effects. Oral, intramuscular, and intravenous administration are the three methods approved by the FDA for giving antipsychotic medications to patients. Most medication is administered orally, swallowed in the form of pills or liquids. Regular injections are also used, although less often. In terms of dosage, there are differences depending on the type of drug, and its type of consumption. For example, Asenapine must be taken in 10mg a day amounts, while a daily amount of Lumateperone is 42. In addition, the dosage may change significantly depending on the immunity status of the patient, their age, or other health factors. One antipsychotic medicine at a time is the rule, as recommended by the FDA. Consent to additional side effects associated with certain antipsychotic drugs is also required from an ethical standpoint before their administration (World Health Organization., 2018). Patients who use antipsychotics in high doses are at increased risk for adverse effects without any added benefit. Effectiveness at the lowest possible dose needs to be taken into account. For example, long-acting antipsychotics should be used cautiously and only in extreme cases of illness. It is recommended to switch antipsychotic medications; however, the previous medication must be eliminated slowly while the new one is gradually increasing.

Dosing

Many different receptors in the brain are affected by pharmacodynamics medication effects. The peak concentration of haloperidol in the blood plasma occurs six days after injection, and the half-life is approximately six weeks, according to the pharmacokinetics medication (Funk et al., 2020). As part of its mechanism of action, one of the earliest butyrophenone antipsychotics is haloperidol. The mechanism of action involves blocking brain dopaminergic receptors of type D2 kind. The side effects are confusion, seizures, extrapyramidal reactions, drowsiness, blurred vision, and dry eyes.

Ethical Consideration during Pharmacological Treatment

The drugs are constantly evolving as research into creating better antipsychotic medications progresses. The best advice a doctor can take is to keep up with the latest research on the psychopharmacological effects, side effects, and contraindications of new medications. Patients’ informed consent is obtained before the administration of any medications. Patients’ wishes should be considered when prescribing drugs unless they constitute an immediate threat to themselves or others. Keeping patients safe is essential to any ethical profession (Paterick et al., 2017). The medical community is responsible for upholding these ethical standards by providing patients with the correct treatment for their diagnosed mental illness.

The amount of potential risks and considerations associated with a particular type of medication differs depending on the population. With antipsychotics, dosage and population age become especially important, as this type of medicine has the capacity to severely alter one’s bodily functions. In children, for example, antipsychotics have the capacity to facilitate weight gain, cholesterol increase, cardiovascular disease and sedation. In addition, only a select number of medications can be safely used. This is also true for pregnant people, who may endanger the health of their fetus without sufficient care being used. Overdosing can create severe problems with the heart’s electrical system and can be fatal, especially in the elderly. Those with suicidal tendencies may be in unique danger when consuming antipsychotics, as this type of medication can contribute to the development of suicidal ideation. Because of the wide variety of potential issues the medication can cause, doctors, researchers and other medical professionals have a moral responsibility to administer antipsychotics carefully and continuously study their effects. As part of diagnostic and laboratory monitoring, ECGs should be monitored for QTc arrhythmias and prolongation after intravenous medication administration. Mental health should be evaluated for comorbidities before and on occasion throughout therapy.

Pertinent Patient Education

Pharmacological treatment should be combined with other medically-based healthcare procedures to be effective. To treat a patient with psychosis, doctors must spend more time with them and keep their spirits and ears open. The number of suicide attempts attributed to mental illness has increased recently (Patrick et al., 2017). Substance misuse and addiction are significant factors in the yearly mortality toll. In the early 1990s, preterm births accounted for more than half of the annual death toll in the United States (Patrick et al., 2017). The current day’s total is higher. It is recommended that doctors keep in regular contact with their patients who are experiencing psychosis and that they recodify these patients’ behaviors through training courses.

References

Funk, M. C., Beach, S. R., Bostwick, J. R., Celano, C., Hasnain, M., Pandurangi, A., & Kovacs, R. J. (2020). QTc prolongation and psychotropic medications. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(3), 273-274.

Keepers, G. A., Fochtmann, L. J., Anzia, J. M., Benjamin, S., Lyness, J. M., Mojtabai, R., & (Systematic Review). (2020). The American Psychiatric Association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(9), 868-872.

Paterick, T. E., Patel, N., Tajik, A. J., & Chandrasekaran, K. (2017). Improving health outcomes through patient education and partnerships with patients. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings (Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 112-113). Taylor & Francis.

World Health Organization. (2018). Management of physical health conditions in adults with severe mental disorders: WHO guidelines.

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