Immunity is the body’s ability to suppress invading pathogens that cause infection. The two types of immunity for the body are adaptive immunity and natural immunity. Other subcategories of immunity include passive and active immunity (Gleichmann, 2020). Natural immunity within the body is caused without the intervention of humans. Adaptive immunity, however, occurs once antibodies or antigens have been introduced to the body artificially. The different types of immunities and the way people’s immunities can be impacted by stress are discussed in this paper.
For adaptive immunity, the limited half-life that antibodies have means that immunity would be conferred to the body for a limited time. When antibodies are introduced to the body this way, the entire process is referred to as passive immunization. Therefore, adaptive immunity is classified as the type of immunity the body acquires artificially or naturally (Gleichmann, 2020). Immunities acquired either naturally or artificially are made up of active and passive components. Active immunity is acquired when antigens are introduced into the body naturally. This happens when antibodies are induced by the body or after the body has accommodated specialized lymphocytes.
Naturally, passive immunity is transferred from the mother’s placenta to the fetus. During breastfeeding, an infant acquires naturally passive immunity from the mother’s milk. Artificially acquired immunity, which contains active and passive components, is significant to the body, too (Gleichmann, 2020). Vaccines contain antigens that introduce artificially acquired immunity to the body. Moreover, when antibodies that contain specialized lymphocytes are produced by the body, artificially acquired immunity is guaranteed.
Passive artificially acquired immunity is introduced to the body via an injection that ensures preformed antibodies are introduced to the immune serum. Typically, the mother transfers passive immunity or naturally acquired immunity to the baby (Wingerd & Taylor, 2020). Passive immunity is introduced to an individual’s body after it has been acquired from someone who produced the needed antibodies. Meanwhile, humans should note that a person’s immunity can be impacted by stress if stress levels are not monitored. The moment a person suffers from stress, the ability of the body’s immune system to suppress antigens reduces. The reason why humans are usually susceptible to infections is best explained by this point (Seiler et al., 2019). Overall, the body’s immunity is not born, but it is made so that the body could be protected from harmful pathogens, bacteria, and antigens.
Gleichmann, N. (2020). Innate vs adaptive immunity. Technology Networks. Web.
Seiler, A., Fagundes, C. P., & Christian, L. M. (2019). The impact of everyday stressors on the immune system and health. Stress Challenges and Immunity in Space, 71-92. Web.
Wingerd, B., & Taylor, P. B. (2020). The human body: Concepts of anatomy and physiology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.