Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the critical problems in the healthcare sector. The occurrence of this disease is influenced by several external environmental factors, among which smoking tobacco products stand out. This is especially true due to the fact that an increasing number of people resort to this harmful habit for the body. Thus, this scientific project will cover such aspects as the essence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, background, and significance of the problem, analysis of current literature on the topic, and possible interventions, which were discussed in the sources studied. This will help to gain a better understanding of what the chosen issue is for patients and healthcare providers and what measures can be applied to change the situation with the disease.
Overview of the Problem
First of all, it is necessary to discuss the problem of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and why its study is essential for exploring. In addition, this procedure will help determine the potential contribution of the proposed project to the discipline of nursing. Thus, the disease chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) consists of “airflow blocking and breathing-related problems” (“Basics about COPD,” n.d., para. 1). It is worth noting that this range includes several deviations related to the respiratory system, for example, such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. An important aspect that poses a danger to the population is that some people may not know that they have COPD. Thus, they are not diagnosed and do not receive proper treatment, which negatively affects the health of people.
The occurrence of the disease is primarily influenced by external environmental factors, that is, air pollution and the widespread use of tobacco smoking. Hence, cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of COPD in the United States of America. In addition, factors that can negatively affect the development of the disease are genetic factors and respiratory infections. Thus, air quality and high levels of pollution, and personal factors become potential threats to the appearance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients.
COPD is widespread in America, which is reflected in the statistics of various scientific studies. Therefore, “it was the fourth leading cause of death in the United States in 2018, and almost 15.7 million Americans (6.4%) reported that they have been diagnosed with COPD” (“Basics about COPD,” n.d., para. 2). Moreover, many patients experiencing problems with the respiratory system, they did not know that their disease could be associated with COPD. Among the population group that smokers are most exposed to. Other individuals who may develop chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases include women, people over 65 years of age, chemical workers, and those who have acquired diseases of the pulmonary system at an early age.
COPDS have several specific symptoms that can immediately indicate the presence of diseases. Hence, among them, difficulty in breathing, coughing, and phlegm production can be distinguished. When these kinds of characteristics appear, patients need to contact a specialist to make a diagnosis and prescribe a course of treatment. It is worth emphasizing that to this day, there is no specific treatment that will help completely get rid of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, the sooner people turn to a healthcare institution, the more practical work will be done to reduce and limit the negative impact of the disease on a person.
Project Purpose Statement
The resolution of the purpose of the study is of critical importance for achieving the greatest efficiency of the work carried out. Thus, this scientific project sets the following goals:
- Study the spread of the problem of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its impact on the population using the analysis of current literature.
- Highlighting possible interventions proposed in the scientific literature that can help reduce the spread and increase the incidence of COPD.
Background and Significance
The importance of studying the problem of the wide spread of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among patients is the need to find ways to limit its symptoms the most. This project is innovative in that it will explore measures to solve the problem by isolating them from the evidence-based literature. Thus, the reliability of the information received will be ensured, and the increased effectiveness of the proposed interventions will be possible. Moreover, it is essential to note that this research project may have a potential impact on the betterment of health and health outcomes. This is due to the fact that it will provide data for further study of the topic and the development of treatment methods.
The study of the background shows that the problem is not only relevant in the modern healthcare sector but has also been a threat to people’s health for quite a long time. It is worth noting that it also consists in the fact that various groups of the population may be exposed to it if additional factors of influence, such as smoking or age, are not taken into account. The significance of COPD is that it directly affects the quality of life and the mortality rate among the population. The chronic nature of respiratory system problems also contributes to the importance of various interventions.
PICO(T) formatted Clinical Project Questions
The next step in conducting research is to determine the population, intervention, comparison, expected outcomes, and timeframe for the proposed project. This will play a role in achieving the most valuable and productive results, which will be important not only for the present research but also for future work investigating this topic, which concerns chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Hence, speaking about this project, the population affects the population of the United States who have COPD or are exposed to risk factors. Further, the intervention will be derived using research from scientific sources that can show the most remarkable effectiveness.
Moreover, comparison consists in comparing an alternative method of treating chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases with the previously proposed one. Expected outcomes consist in showing a positive trend in the use of a particular treatment method that will show effectiveness in a specific time period. Henceforth, the PICO(T) question for this project becomes: In adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, how effective is GHGHG compares to HJHJ in lowering the symptoms of COPD during the diagnosis and treatment?
Literature Review and Critical Appraisal
Literary review and critical evaluation of the information received is of interest, as it can provide information not only about the problem itself but also ways to solve it. Thus, within the framework of this project, a study of scientific sources was conducted based on the selected topic. The words “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” “COPD,” and “chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases treatment” were highlighted as key terms used to guide a search for evidence. According to the results, several relevant, credible, recent, evidence-based research studies to support the project proposal were identified. Moreover, the strengths and weaknesses of given data, what is known from the evidence, and what gaps were found in the research studies were highlighted.
Thus, the first source that COPD explores is the article by Duffy and Criner titled “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evaluation and management.” Therefore, the authors note that this disease is a fairly standard deviation in the work of the human respiratory system. The work notes that “it accounts for the third most deaths of any disease process in the United States” (Duffy & Criner, 2019, p. 453). Moreover, “the financial burden of COPD is significant, accounting for nearly $50 billion in US government spending in 2010” (Duffy & Criner, 2019, p. 453). As already mentioned, the main reason is adherence to the use of tobacco products and exposure to the harmful effects of cigarette smoke.
Among the central and most effective interventions, which was highlighted by the second article, is smoking cessation. This is due to the fact that smoking causes most of the diseases associated with the respiratory system. Pharmacological therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators was singled out among other ways to combat COPD. Moreover, more severe cases of the disease require more serious interventions, such as lung volume reduction surgery and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (Duffy & Criner, 2019). Thus, it was noted that the source has the advantage of providing a large number of COPD treatment methods that are based on the evidence base obtained during a detailed study.
The following article, which was evaluated within the framework of this project by Lippi and Henry under the title “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 coronavirus disease 2019.” It is noted that the disease may develop into severe hypoxemia, for which ventilatory support may be needed. Moreover, the dependence in which respiratory diseases and the coronavirus pandemic are located has been determined, which also affects the lungs of individuals. Thus, medical institutions should develop preventive measures and spread awareness about the threat that arises in these conditions.
The literature also notes the importance of lifestyle changes in the fight and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore, the article Scoditti et al. “Role of diet in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevention and treatment,” explores how diet affects COPD. In addition, the authors emphasize the importance of determining the main factors for the prevention and treatment of diseases in the respiratory system. The evidence in this paper is based on observational and clinical studies. They considered the “impact of nutrients and dietary patterns on lung function and COPD development, progression, and outcomes, with highlights on potential mechanisms of action” (Scoditti et al., 2019, p. 1). So, for COPD treatment, it was proposed to change dietary patterns. Among the results that were derived at the end of the study were “better pulmonary function, less lung function decline, and reduced risk of COPD” (Scoditti et al., 2019, p. 2). Thus, despite the fact that there is an insufficient amount of scientific research, this article has provided sufficiently substantiated data for the consideration and development of treatment plans and strategies.
Another way to treat and prevent COPD is to use endotypes and associated biomarkers and phenotypes. Agustí et al. (2017) emphasize the complexity of clinical and biological aspects. Thus, it is necessary to conduct more detailed and thoughtful tests and analyses that will help develop more successful treatment methods. The strength of this source is to provide a unique insight into the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, it does not provide enough information about how they can be used for specific COPD treatment paths.
Another article written by Broekman et al. emphasizes the need to introduce new ways to limit COPD symptoms. The proposed intervention in this article is “mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which have the capacity to modify immune responses and to enhance tissue repair” (Broekman et al., 2018, p. 566). One of the positive consequences of using this kind of treatment is anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, as well as the fact of prevention of injury and the ability to restore damaged monolayers. Despite the innovativeness of the new method, the weak side of the source is the insufficient evidence base. Therefore, a study of the literature has shown that there are quite a large number of ways to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Moreover, new ideas can be taken as a basis, which, with deeper study, can be successful when implemented into treatment and care plans. Scientific articles also provide statistics that give a more detailed picture of how the disease develops and which groups of the population are most susceptible to it.
Therefore, during the literary review, two ways of dealing with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were identified. The first of them is smoking cessation which is the leading factor of the disease among patients. In this case, specialists should provide the patient with assistance and the necessary treatment that will help get rid of the bad habit. Moreover, individual patient preferences must be ensured in order to reduce the risk factor most smoothly and productively and limit the possible consequences of exposure to respiratory system diseases. The second way that can show productivity in the treatment and prevention of COPD can be pharmacological therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators (Duffy & Criner, 2019). This pathway can be more effective since it involves the direct use of medications. Unlike quitting smoking, they will directly interact with the foci of the disease and help reduce the negative impact on the body. Additionally, oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation can also be applied in the form of a bundle of care. They will help to normalize the work of the lungs and other organs of the respiratory system to increase the recovery rate of the individual.
The last aspect that needs to be considered is the potential contributions of the proposed project to nursing research, education, and practice. Conducting scientific research related to public health can provide an extensive amount of useful information for both healthcare providers and patients. This is due to the fact that more and more sources are in the public domain. Thus, anyone can learn some scientific and statistical data about a particular health problem. Moreover, the evidence-based nature of scientific research helps to verify its reliability and confirmation. In addition, they can be the main or additional information for other larger-scale works that address problems with the human respiratory system. In the future, academic papers will become the basis for the development of strategies and plans for intervention, treatment of patients, and the development of medicines for them.
Thus, studying the basics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, its symptoms, spread, and treatment methods provide valuable information when teaching nurses. It also promotes awareness of the need for diagnostic measures that will help detect the disease at an early stage. This will help prevent complications in advance since, at the moment, no treatment has been developed that can completely prevent COPD. Thus, this project is valuable for the training and practice of medical specialists and also provides a basis for future research on this topic.
In conclusion, this project aimed to study chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During the work, the essence of the studied deviation of the respiratory system and the factors that have the most negative impact on people were determined. Moreover, the population groups that may be most susceptible to this type of disease were noted. Further, the project highlighted the PICO(T) question, which contributed to determining the direction in which the study will continue to develop and what expected outcomes it can receive. During the literary review, the two most effective methods of COPD treatment were identified: smoking cessation and pharmacological therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators. In combination with other assistance measures, they will help alleviate symptoms and improve the quality of life of patients. The need to study the topic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its impact on patients is the need to develop an effective and efficient treatment plan due to the current lack of such.
Agustí, A., Celli, B., & Faner, R. (2017). What does endotyping mean for treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? The Lancet, 390(10098), 980-987.
Basics about COPD. (n.d.). Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
Broekman, W., Khedoe, P. P., Schepers, K., Roelofs, H., Stolk, J., & Hiemstra, P. S. (2018). Mesenchymal stromal cells: a novel therapy for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?. Thorax, 73(6), 565-574.
Duffy, S. P., & Criner, G. J. (2019). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evaluation and management. Medical Clinics, 103(3), 453-461.
Lippi, G., & Henry, B. M. (2020). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory medicine, 167, 105941.
Scoditti, E., Massaro, M., Garbarino, S., & Toraldo, D. M. (2019). Role of diet in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevention and treatment. Nutrients, 11(6).