Every professional area has terminology related to the specifics of its work. In nursing, NANDA-International (NANDA-I) represents a standardized nursing terminology (NT) and promotes the growth of nursing knowledge from a disciplinary conceptual basis (Rabelo‐Silva et al., 2020). Rabelo‐Silva et al. (2020) suggest that NANDA-I is more explanatory than other standardized language systems. A concept analysis based on NANDA-I can help better understand ideas used in nursing.
The Concept Analysis
Select a Concept
The concept analysis’s first step concentrates on the selection of a concept. NANDA-I has recently updated its terminology and defines a concept as “an abstract idea” but also refers to its diagnoses as concepts (Nanda International, 2021, p. 110). Some examples of nursing concepts include environment, health, well-being, and stress (Nanda International, 2021). Therefore, one can assess the concept of coping, which relates to one’s well-being, can be associated with stress, and presents a domain in NANDA-I with a class of responses and several diagnoses (Nanda International, 2021). Coping offers several opportunities for analysis and implications for nursing practice.
Determine the Purpose
The next step mandates determining the aims of exploring the said concept. NANDA-I states that before beginning an assessment, nurses must obtain knowledge of key concepts to diagnose accurately (Nanda International, 2021). For instance, coping can require a specific approach when providing care to immigrant populations (Nanda International, 2021). Moreover, problems related to coping can be connected to other diagnoses, such as maladaptive grieving (Nanda International, 2021). Healthcare providers need to understand the meaning of coping in different practice settings. Consequently, the concept analysis is required to provide more insight into its possible use and preventative measures in nursing.
The third step of the analysis focuses on the concept’s possible uses. Cambridge Dictionary offers two definitions of the concept of coping. The first one describes a row of stones that forms the top part of a wall, and the second one refers to successfully dealing with problems (Cambridge University Press, n.d.). The concept seems to be often connected to specific strategies, skills, and abilities (Cambridge University Press, n.d.). NANDA-I views the concept as a class of coping responses rather than a sole diagnosis and refers to it as the process of managing environmental stress (Nanda International, 2021). Although coping may not have many definitions, it mainly concerns handling challenges.
Furthermore, the concept is used in several disciplines but with similar meanings. In psychology, coping is divided into problem-focused and emotion-focused categories (Stanisławski, 2019). The former refers to managing problems that cause distress, whereas the latter regulates emotional responses to issues (Stanisławski, 2019). In media and communication studies, coping is reviewed in dealing with stress by using media (Wolfers & Schneider, 2020). This field defines the concept as the cognitive and behavioral efforts required to manage “the stressful person-environment transaction” (Wolfers & Schneider, 2020, p. 3). Social sciences focus on communal coping, which is the appraisal of a problem and collaborative behavior to address it (Zajdel & Helgeson, 2020). Moreover, communal coping can enhance relationship quality and assist in better adjustment to diseases (Zajdel & Helgeson, 2020). Aside from nursing, the concept is used in psychology, media, and social areas.
Determine the Attributes
Step four of the concept analysis is the determination of the defining attributes. The above definitions in four fields suggest similarities in the characterization of coping, including an appraisal of a problem, purposeful effort, and adjustment. During the appraisal, people evaluate environmental triggers that can be threatening, challenging, or harmful (Wolfers & Schneider, 2020). Effort refers to cognitive and behavioral steps to alter the situation or solve the problem (Stanisławski, 2019). Adjustment can be psychological and physical and can be affected by initial appraisal (Zajdel & Helgeson, 2020). The three attributes can form another definition for coping as recognizing and dealing with challenging situations.
Build a Model Case
The concept analysis’s next step is building a model case. For example, people who have family members with bipolar disorder often require problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies (Sampogna et al., 2018). Most frequently adopted coping strategies include positive communication with the patient, social activities, and seeking information (Sampogna et al., 2018). Therefore, a model case for coping can be as follows: A family learns that their teenage child is diagnosed with bipolar disorder. One of the parents is devastated by the news and begins avoiding staying alone with the child. The other parent is upset but seeks more information about the diagnosis. A healthcare provider guides the parents, and together they develop a strategy to be comfortable with the child again and learn to coexist with the disorder.
Build a Similar Case
The following step of the concept analysis requires building a similar case. For instance, as mentioned above, NANDA-I connects coping to maladaptive grieving, but the latter is different (Nanda International, 2021). Maladaptive grieving occurs after the death of a significant other but can be related to difficulty dealing with a crisis (Nanda International, 2021). Consequently, maladaptive grieving differs from coping in an inability to overcome a problem, suggesting a similar case. A woman’s husband passes away, and she expresses depressive symptoms and detachment from others. The woman comprehends that her spouse is gone but cannot find the strength to move on with her life.
Build an Opposite Case
The next step of the analysis mandates developing an opposite case. While the model case demonstrated coping attributes completely and the similar case had the first attribute of appraisal, an opposite one would contrast them. A man loses his job and begins to drink more than usual. He feels pain in his stomach with time, and his family suggests he goes to the doctor. However, the man refuses for the longest time and is eventually hospitalized when his condition worsens. He is diagnosed with an illness caused by alcoholism and suggested treatment, but the man continues to deny having a drinking problem that causes the disease.
Identify the Antecedents, Consequences, and Empirical Methods
The two final steps of the analysis refer to identifying antecedents, consequences, and methods to measure the concept. Although the above cases focused mainly on the healthcare area, people can encounter various challenges that would require certain coping mechanisms. However, the primary antecedent of the concept is a stressor, and others can be conflicts, failures, unrealistic expectations (Nanda International, 2021). On the other hand, consequences of coping can be better relationships and less psychological distress (Zajdel & Helgeson, 2020). Moreover, one should remember that stress can lead to adopting the environment and enhancing wellness through overcoming difficulties (Wolfers & Schneider, 2020). Finally, depending on the specifics of coping, it can be measured by several methods. For example, one article recommends using the Ways of Coping Questionnaire that measures responses to stress, whereas another study advises relying on self-reports to assess coping (Stanisławski, 2019; Wolfers & Schneider, 2020). Overall, coping can be measured differently, and its antecedents and consequences are opposite as the former are associated with negative factors and the latter with positive outcomes.
To summarize, NANDA-I presents multiple concepts that nurses must comprehend, one of them being coping. Although coping can refer to buildings as a part of a wall, it is mostly used to describe the process of overcoming stressful crises in nursing, psychology, media, and social sciences. The concept can also represent many situations involving a problem that requires an effort to deal with it successfully.
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Coping. In Cambridge dictionary. Web.
Nanda International. (2021). Nursing diagnoses: Definitions and classification 2021–2023 (12th ed.). Thieme.
Rabelo‐Silva, E. R., Monteiro Mantovani, V., López Pedraza, L., Cardoso, P. C., Takao Lopes, C., & Herdman, T. H. (2020). International collaboration and new research evidence on Nanda international terminology. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge, 32(2), 103-107. Web.
Sampogna, G., Luciano, M., Del Vecchio, V., Malangone, C., De Rosa, C., Giallonardo, V., & Fiorillo, A. (2018). The effects of psychoeducational family intervention on coping strategies of relatives of patients with bipolar I disorder: Results from a controlled, real-world, multicentric study. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, 977-989. Web.
Stanisławski, K. (2019). The coping circumplex model: An integrative model of the structure of coping with stress. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-23. Web.
Wolfers, L. N., & Schneider, F. M. (2020). Using media for coping: A scoping review. Communication Research, 48(8), 1-25. Web.
Zajdel, M., & Helgeson, V. S. (2020). Communal coping: A multi-method approach with links to relationships and health. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 37(5), 1700-1721. Web.