Considering the individualist or collectivist nature of culture, nurse practitioners are able to tailor the best treatment plan for either small or larger groups of patients.
Culture affects people’s perception of illness, health, and death. Culture also influences various approaches that people have toward health, preferred type of treatment, where the patients will be seeking help, and the experience of pain and illness. Most of the time dominant culture can greatly influence healthcare practices in a given nation.
Various preferences and perceptions related to healthcare may result due to cultural bias. Cultural competence makes nurse practitioners aware of the existing differences and is able to incorporate new awareness while diagnosing and considering treatment.
Comparison and Contrast of Hispanic and Nigerian Culture
In Nigeria, individuals with lower education levels speak Fulfulde, Igbo, Hausa, Yoruba, Kanuri, Ibibio, and Tiv. The types of sign languages used are Nigerian, Bura, and Hausa sign languages. On the other hand, some other minor languages that only a few people use in Spain are Aranese, Basque, Valencian/Catalan, and Galician. Additionally, the Spanish people also practice Hinduism, Protestantism, Judaism, and Islam. Spirituality and religion can impact various decisions on diet, and in most instances, the cultural practices of different religions interfere with medical treatment.
The Hispanic people, including the children, always expect to be treated warmly and with dignity when in healthcare facilities. When dealing with Spanish individuals, nurse practitioners should avoid the use of gestures as they are perceived differently, hence relaying different information. Most individuals of Hispanic origin believe that traditional medicine is superior as compared to the alternative type. There exists a significant or major gap in communication between patients and physicians with respect to alternative medicine.
The attitude of the Spanish parents towards fever was influenced by their previous experience, their folk beliefs, and the perceived severity of the condition. The parents believed that fever is a result of an imbalance in the body’s hot and cold elements and, therefore, restoration of balance contributes to the ceasing of the fever. Nigerian and Hispanic cultures instill in their children good manners, honor, and respect for the elderly and individuals in authority. Concerning the fears and misconceptions, Latino parents need to be considered for proper education to address the problem of a general lack of knowledge concerning that kind of disease. Due to a lack of empowerment and low literacy level, in Nigeria, there is a poor rate of healthcare-seeking behaviors among women for their children suffering from fever.
Historical Aspects of Culture
Most Mexican-American students were punished for speaking the Spanish language in school. Most of the ancestors of the Mexicans lacked American citizenship and hence were not able to access Medicare and supplemental security benefits. Most of the ethnic and racial minority groups among the citizens of the US experience elevated rates of death and illness across a range of health conditions that include diabetes, asthma, obesity, and hypertension as compared to the whites. Additionally, minority groups or racial minorities usually receive low healthcare quality and, to some extent, do not receive the services.
Socioeconomic Aspects of Culture
Both Hispanics and African Americans have always faced similar problems related to socioeconomic disparity due to their social status, communication difficulties, and economic disparities, such as lack of enough funds to cater for proper medical treatment or expense and proper housing conditions.
A percentage of the Black families were headed by couples that were married. African Americans practiced several religions that were majorly based on protestant Christianity.
Among Hispanic people, the hereditary type of cancer is low, and only a few percent are affected by the condition. These particular individuals, however, are at a high risk of developing a secondary type of cancer. There has been a high rate of productivity loss due to cancers. This has led to a negative impact on the socioeconomic situation among the ethnic groups. With this knowledge, nurse practitioners should know the ways to handle this minority group of people regardless of the incompatible social norms.
A larger percentage of men are more prone to smoking as compared to women. Cuban American males are recognized to be prone to heavy smoking of more than 20 cigarettes in a day. Puerto Rican and Mexican American males major in the excessive consumption of Alcohol. Healthcare practitioners can bring these acts to an end through various ways that aim at creating awareness of the unhealthy act, and no form of discrimination should be expressed. Additionally, nurse practitioners should know how they can progressively contribute to the reduction of unhealthy cases among Hispanic individuals. The teachings and guidance can take any form, from a proper diet that is not full of “junk food” that may cause obesity to a reduction in substance addiction.
Influences of Hispanic Value Systems on Childbearing
The Latinas or the Hispanic people know that women who are pregnant are normal and not sick to be visiting the hospital at a predetermined time as other Americans do. It is because of this reason that Hispanic women do visit or seek prenatal healthcare at later stages of pregnancy. Because large babies cause difficulty in giving birth, Hispanic women, a few weeks before birth, are advised to eat little food to avoid difficulty in labor due to large babies.
The concept of birthmarks according to the Hispanic culture differs from that with which the nurse practitioners are familiar. In such a case, the nurse should know how to handle the situation, and if the case is worse, proper medical procedures should be taken.
The Hispanics believe in the use of some products as opposed to the medical concept. They use Ruda con chocolate, which is commonly recognized as garden rue with chocolate. Most of the time, they are not always approved by the modern medical concept that is consistent and reliable as compared to the traditional herbs that have become extinct, and accessing them to treat a condition may be impossible. Such substances may thus pose a health threat to the unborn that may, in turn, affect the mother too. The use of tea speeds up the process of childbirth
Influences of Hispanic Value on Bereavement Practices
The altars are usually surrounded by food and water. When the diseased are children, toys and candy are usually brought to the altar. Nurse practitioners who work at community healthcare facilities around the community should recognize that understanding such practices is significant in being appropriate and sensitive to death. The nurse practitioner in charge or the deceased patient should ask the bereaved family about the specifics of the cultural and non-cultural practices that are to be carried out during the funeral procession; noting the wishes done in the family record is a significant step to alerting other healthcare providers of the procedures to be carried out as per the family wishes during that challenging period.
Cancer is considered the leading cause of a high rate of mortality among individuals of the first-generation Latino population. To improve palliative care among Latino adults living in rural areas, nurse practitioners should train them on the importance of that type of care to the individuals affected by cancer. In addition, nurse practitioners should recognize such cultural disparity and embrace them by granting the bereaved a chance to carry out such activities with their terminally ill loved ones.
Sources of Strength, Spirituality, and Magico-religious Beliefs
Spirituality influences various activities and decisions regarding diet and the usage of various medicinal products or medicines based on certain products derived from animals. Various spiritual beliefs also affect the type of preferred gender to attend to their loved ones. The individuals of Spanish origin also value their religious customs. Their religion is completely valuable to medical assistance. Because of that, there has been an increase in instances of religiosity and medical mistrust among Latino individuals.
Hispanic individuals suffering from depression believe to benefit from mindful meditation. Mindful meditation helps Hispanics enhance their neural systems. Those who practice meditation among Hispanics are constantly focused on alleviating concerns such as worry and fear in order to remain calm. Most Hispanics use meditation to cleanse and enhance their communication skills. Individuals will also benefit from increased immune strength. Furthermore, good meditation will allow for adequate and quality sleep. Prayers are another important method for comforting Hispanics who are through difficulties. From all these practices, most tend to ignore hospital check-ups until it’s late.
Health Care Practices
Home remedies and reliance on lay healers are the most common forms of Hispanic health care in varied households. A lack of proper exercise and diet has resulted in a rise in health-related ailments among Hispanics. The unfavorable perception of healthcare among Hispanics leads to illness diagnoses among the cultural group being delayed. Furthermore, Hispanic women are typically timid when the medical examination includes exposure to the genital and breast areas.
There are a variety of reasons why Hispanic people seek healers and rely on conventional healing methods. Some of the causes comprise limited access to healthcare as a result of the language barrier and unfamiliarity with American society. Healers are typically found in diverse cultural groupings. The healers depended on folk medicine to treat and cure, using eggs, oils, herbs, amulets, and other herbal medications. People from Hispanic communities are hesitant to seek healthcare because they fear they may be denied.
Learning Styles/Educational Preparation
It should be recognized that Hispanic cultural beliefs are slightly similar to other types of cultures across the world. When the attending nurse practitioner is not of the same religion as the patient, there should not be any form of discrimination based on the denomination. It is great that Hispanics have special ways in which they take care of terminally ill individuals. In line with the Roman Catholic doctrines, while still on the deathbed, the sick are taken care of and anointed by the Catholic priests right after confession. Nurse practitioners should encourage the community members to also consider palliative care besides the religious norm for the benefit of the patient.
Nurse practitioners, especially when working in various communities, should familiarize themselves with and consider the cultural norms and practices of the patients they are dealing with. Through that, nurses are able to recognize how satisfactory they can engage the patients. Nurses should educate the locals on the importance of modern medicine and how effective it is compared to conventional medicine. As an African-American, I have to embrace the fact that we share and, at the same time, do not share some cultural values. It is interesting, and I like how Hispanics care for the expectant. However, they should consider incorporating modern medicine as well.
Most Hispanics are of the Roman Catholic church. They follow the doctrines of the church, believe in prayers, and often request a priest to pray for them and their sick members. As a nurse educator, an African-American of Nigerian origin, I have learned a lot of unique ways of life of the Hispanic people. There are several healthcare practices that should be incorporated by nurse practitioners when caring for children and adults of that origin. Proper education on modern medicine is one of the best methods for the benefit of the ethnic group.
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