Literature Review on Nursing Theories

Topic: Nursing
Words: 1115 Pages: 4

Nursing theories include environmental theory, interpersonal relation theory, nursing need theory, self-care deficit theory, system model, and Casey’s model. The nurse’s initiative to configure appropriate environmental settings for the progressive restoration of the patient’s health is based on environmental theory. The environmental theory states that external forces associated with the patient’s surroundings affect the patient’s life or biological and metabolic processes in his development. According to the interpersonal relations theory view, nursing is an interactive, therapeutic process that occurs when professionals who have been specifically trained to be nurses participate in therapeutic relationships with individuals who require health care. The Nursing Need Theory defines the specific focus of nursing practice. The approach emphasizes enhancing a patient’s freedom to hasten their hospitalization. The Nursing Need approach focuses on the most fundamental human needs and how nurses might help meet those requirements. The Self-Care Deficit Theory focuses on each person’s ability to practice self-care, defined as the actions that individuals start and undertake on their behalf to sustain life, sanity, and well-being.

The Systems Model for Nursing gives a comprehensive, holistic, and system-based approach to nursing that preserves flexibility. It focuses on the patient’s reaction to existing or perceived environmental factors and maintains the client’s stability via primary, secondary, and postsecondary nursing stress reduction therapies. Human needs theory practice was inspired by developing the patient-centered approach to nursing. It was created as a tool for nursing education; thus, it is most appropriate and beneficial in that discipline. The nursing model proposes to help guide treatment in hospitals, but nurses can also use it in community health nursing. Casey’s Model of Nursing is one of the early nursing theories designed exclusively for healthy child nursing (Whelan & Casey, 2021). This philosophy emphasizes the nurse’s collaboration with the kid and their family. The belief is that a child’s family, with the help of health professionals, is the best person to care for them.

These nursing theories’ applications vary based on the patient’s issues. In the research topic on the increase in symptoms of depression in the patients’ age range 45-60, the self-care deficit theory and the theory of Interpersonal Relations in Nursing are applicable. Self-care theory can is critical in patient recovery and maintenance, whereas interpersonal relation theory can help a nurse create a bond with the patient. Peplau borrowed the principles of communication and connections from Sullivan’s interpersonal theory (Cortina, 2020) and concentrated on patient-nurse relationships to acquire problem-solving abilities in his theory of interpersonal relations. For depression patient care, personal care, mental services, and health development, interpersonal relations theory are helpful. Behavioral nursing theory is employed in mental nursing practices, which focuses on self-care insufficiency. According to the guidelines, patients who are unable to care for themselves should be given nursing care. Patients can use this approach to acquire self-care needs such as safety, sanitation, relaxation, and nutrition.

Different people in their research have used interpersonal relations in nursing theory. Senn (2019) studied the application of this theory in emergency and rural nursing. He discusses features of Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory and its application. Long (2021) and Weinert (2021) identified the principles of rural nursing. Through descriptions of theory and conceptual frameworks, several distinctions between interpersonal relation theory and pastoral care can be recognized by individuals. Despite their differences, both theories have some common themes explored and compared. According to Senn (2019), emergency nursing necessitates skilled and sensitive communication between nurses and patients. Nurse-patient contacts in the emergency room may be brief, but they should be meaningful to the patients.

Traumatic injuries, psychiatric diseases, substance misuse, cardiac difficulties, infants, and obstetrics are among the areas in which emergency nurses are cross-trained. Senn (2019) argues that out of every eight trips to the emergency room was due to mental illness or substance addiction. The emergency nurse must communicate with patients and family members proactively, using empathy, firmness, and active listening. Hagerty (2017) tested the theory of interpersonal relations in nursing using data from client experience surveys. He says that despite evidence suggesting that sick individuals’ perceptions of their experiences are closely linked to nursing care, patient assessments dedicate just a tiny amount of space to questions concerning nursing. Prior research suggests that competent nursing care enhances patient experiences and well-being.

However, further data is needed to evaluate whether a more excellent definition of the respondents’ valuation would better reflect nursing care. In the current study, the researcher proposed adding the patients’ review items to the other four in the ‘your care from nurses’ section. According to the interpersonal relations theory, this would help highlight the clinicians’ contributions to patients’ encounters with care. The above study had two objectives: to examine the theory of interpersonal relations using client experience information and to see if nursing activities classified according to the same theory were significantly associated with patients’ hospital experiences.

In a case study, the theory of interpersonal relations promotes holistic communication between older adults and nursing students. The theory’s framework’s objective is to help medical students learn about integrative communication is an innovative concept (Wasaya et al., 2021). The concept’s three interconnected phases can be used to structure classes. It can also be utilized in posting conferences and skill laboratory presentations on aspects of providing healthcare and communication. As nursing evolves to adopt a holistic paradigm, educational institutions must try to include integrative lessons of mind, soul, and spirit within the coursework. Nurses are being encouraged to become more self-aware and thoughtful in their work. They will be better able to process their feelings, ideas, and emotions toward their patients due to the promotion of holistic practice.

In the article The Future in the Past, the author has applied interpersonal relations in nursing theory. He argues that the impact of the mid-twentieth century concentration on interpersonal relations and connections in nursing has long been recognized by researchers, educators, and clinicians (Hanna, 2018). Neuroanatomy, neurobiology, and neurophysiology have supplanted interactions as crucial factors in determining people’s behavior in the medical field and other social sciences sectors. However, there are worries that the fundamental value of healing relationships has been overshadowed by a biological focus on health and disease experiences in teaching, research, and practice (Hacke, 2021). Professionals are returning to the interpersonal relations theory key insights about the transforming power of connections in nursing as a path to the future. The author believes this theory’s formulations can guide nurses in the proper route. In general, nursing theories have their relevance, and they develop new ways and methods for clinical practice. These concepts question what people already know and do, altering the framework of laws and principles (Hudson, 2020). Therefore, the goal of any medical theory is to influence effective treatment.


Cortina, M. (2020). Harry Stack Sullivan and interpersonal theory: A flawed genius. Psychiatry, 83(1), 103-109. Web.

Hacke, W. (2021). Neurological research and practice: The first milestone has been reached. Neurological Research and Practice, 3(1). Web.

Hagerty, T., Samuels, W., Norcini-Pala, A., & Gigliotti, E. (2017). Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 30(2), 160-167. Web.

Hanna, D. (2018). The life we’ve learned with—Nursing theory—Our past, our future. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 32(3), 242-243. Web.

Hudson, S. (2020). How people develop functional neurological disorder: Some current theories. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 16(2), 69-72. Web.

Keller-Senn, A., Lee, G., Imhof, L., & Sturt, J. (2019). Characteristics of patients treated for severe hypoglycemia in emergency care settings – Analysis of routinely collected data. International Emergency Nursing, 43, 74-78. Web.

Nichols, E., Shreffler-Grant, J., & Weinert, C. (2021). Where have they gone? recruiting and retaining older rural research participants. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 21(1), 179-182. Web.

Wasaya, F., Shah, Q., Shaheen, A., & Carroll, K. (2021). Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations: A case study. Nursing Science Quarterly, 34(4), 368-371. Web.

Whelan, S., & Casey, D. (2021). Examining the utility of the Descartes model for case study research. Research in Gerontological Nursing, 14(2), 60-68. Web.

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