Nowadays, type 2 diabetes is a medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide and has severe repercussions on one’s health. In order to combat the issue of mass predisposition to diabetes, researchers invest much effort in finding current challenges in the early diagnosis and management of the disease. One of the widespread challenges is the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in diverse populations. The present literature review will focus on the studies related to the prevalence and diagnosis of R2DM in populations from diverse ethnic and social backgrounds.
The first study is the research conducted by Goff (2019). The source is credible because it is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal article that has no external funding. Hence, this review focuses on the analysis of T2DM prevalence and diagnosis among ethnic minority communities in the UK (Goff, 2019). According to the investigation, “among ethnic minority groups, the prevalence is alarmingly high, about three to five times higher” than in the White population (Goff, 2019, p. 930). Essentially, the review implies that early diagnosis of T2DM in the minority population is challenged by a lack of cultural competence among practitioners, whereas the group’s predisposition to the disease is significantly higher. Although there is a need for quantitative research, the study provides valuable insights into the current issues of diabetes management in minorities. Hence, it would be beneficial to use it for the research on diabetes treatment in minority groups.
The second study conducted by Cruz and Granados (2018) is focused on the analysis of T2DM diagnosis and prevalence in Latino youth. This source is credible because it is a peer-reviewed journal article written by scholars with qualifications in nutrition and endocrinology. The study itself “provides an update on the clinical aspects of T2DM in Latino youth and focuses on management and prevention strategies” (Cruz & Granados, 2018, p. 16). According to the study, the overwhelming majority of youth with T2DM are overweight, and such statistic presents a problem for Latino youth because “obesity and diabetes risk disproportionally affect Latino populations” (Cruz & Granados, 2018, p. 16). The findings demonstrate that Latino youth has a higher predisposition to low insulin sensitivity, B-cell dysfunction, and pre-diabetes, which presents a challenge for finding a more culturally aware solution for T2DM management and prevention. This study is essential to the research topic because it explicitly provides evidence of the cultural gap in T2DM management in ethnic minorities.
The last study by Corliss et al. (2018) focuses on the issue of T2DM prevalence in lesbian and bisexual female communities. This material is credible because it is a peer-reviewed publication written by professors of public health and epidemiology, whereas the article does not claim any third-party funding or conflict of interest. The central objective of the study is to investigate the “incidence of type 2 diabetes in LB women and heterosexual women in a large, longitudinal U.S. cohort” (Corliss et al., 2018, p. 1448). The researchers imply that women from sexual minorities while having higher risks of obesity, stress-related exposures, and tobacco and alcohol abuse, may be more susceptible to T2DM. The findings claim that “LB women have a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes than heterosexual women,” particularly due to higher risks of obesity (Corliss et al., 2018, p. 1451). This study provides valuable insight into the research topic, as it presents evidence of the correlation between the risk of T2DM management and detection and being a part of a minority group.
Considering the articles above, it can be concluded that currently, many researchers focus on the issues of diagnosis and management of T2DM in minority groups. The results from all three articles demonstrate a positive correlation between a diverse background and a higher risk of developing T2DM. For this reason, it would be of paramount importance to dwell on how these issues could Ibe resolved through timely interventions and holistic care.
Corliss, H. L., VanKim, N. A., Jun, H. J., Austin, S. B., Hong, B., Wang, M., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Risk of type 2 diabetes among lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women: Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study II. Diabetes Care, 41(7), 1448-1454.
Cruz, P., & Granados, A. (2019). Type 2 diabetes in Latino youth: A clinical update and current challenges. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 49(1), 16-22.
Goff, L. M. (2019). Ethnicity and type 2 diabetes in the UK. Diabetic Medicine, 36(8), 927-938.