The Urinary System’s Primary Function

Topic: Urology
Words: 323 Pages: 1

The primary function of the urinary system is to filter the blood and eliminate toxins through urine. This way, the medicines, and by-products leave the body with urine. In addition to that, this system controls the pH level of the blood and urine and reabsorbs electrolytes during the process of urine formation (Montayre et al., 2019). The renal system is also responsible for releasing hormones that affect blood pressure and the production of red blood cells. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, ureters, urethra, and urinary bladder. Kidneys filter the blood and remove urea and all the by-products from it. Urine is formed in the kidneys and goes out through the ureters. At this point, it is curious to notice that even though kidneys are paired organs, the body can still survive if one kidney is removed (Montayre et al., 2019). After leaving the kidneys, the urine goes to the bladder, where it is held till it is excreted from the body through the urethra.

The bladder stays closed, and urine does not leak due to the sphincter muscles. The most complex part of the urinary system is kidney filtering units which are called nephrons. There are two portions of nephrons: glomerulus and renal tubule. The glomerulus filters the blood that was received from the afferent arteriole. As a result of this filtration, the body fluid and waste products leave the blood and get into the tubule, whereas blood cells stay in the blood vessel because the size of these molecules is too large to go through the walls of the glomerulus. The glomerulus filters “approximately 20% of plasma into Bowman’s capsule” (Theodorou et al., 2021, p. 435). The critical function of renal tubules is to reabsorb all the needed fluids and nutrients back into the blood. Therefore, the process of urine formation includes filtration of the blood via glomerulus, reabsorption of fluid and substances via renal tubules, and secretion of wastes.


Montayre, J., Macdiarmid, R., McDonald, E. M., & Saravanakumar, P. (2019). Urinary system. In Z. Tomkins (Ed.), Applied Anatomy & Physiology: An Interdisciplinary Approach (pp. 361-381).

Theodorou, C., Leatherby, R., & Dhanda, R. (2021). Function of the nephron and the formation of urine. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 22(7), 434-438. Web.

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