The COVID-19 Vaccination and Restrictions

Topic: Public Health
Words: 2090 Pages: 7


COVID-19 refers to a group of related viruses that causes respiratory tract infections that range from mild to severe. The virus’s origin is not well acknowledged, but it can be attributed to Wuhan, China, since the first case was reported. European scientists suggest the virus’s host was a bat, but the exact mechanism of spread to human beings is yet to be known. The following paper reflects on COVID-19, starting with its vaccines and the preventive measures such as restrictions. The first initial part of the essay provides a brief understanding of coronavirus. This is preceded by a reflection on vaccination, providing vaccines used to protect individuals and an argument on whether immunization should be voluntary on mandatory. Coronavirus’ increasing cases and deaths have led to worldwide restrictions. The latter part of the paper provides insight into different restriction measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus and the effects of the restrictions.


In mid-2020, the world was hit by a lethal virus. Most of the nations had not placed measures for such hence all operations were halted. The pandemic affected humans on earth in all scopes, from mental, physical, and social health. Coronavirus affects all individuals of all age groups and manifests with fever, cough, tiredness, migraine, diarrhea, sore throat, and loss of taste (Wiersinga et al., 2020). It has an incubation period of 5-6 days but can be prolonged to a fortnight. It is spread when people breathe air contaminated by droplets and particles. The risk of transmission is higher when persons are close, for example, in social gatherings and public vehicles.

Coronavirus can be transmitted by an infected person two days before the symptoms manifest. It has severe consequences, such as death, since the media reported that more than half a million people succumbed. From the onset of the pandemic, life has never been the same. People used to party all night, travel without any restraints, and attend events, vacations, concerts, and football games. The virus paralyzed all these activities resulting in people staying at home most of the time. Individuals were inflicted with fear by the media, and they started becoming cautious upon realizing the disease had severe consequences. The pandemic shook the world, leading to the discovery of various vaccines, and several restrictions have been made to curb its spread and impact on individuals and the world.

COVID-19 Vaccine

Since the pandemic came abruptly, medical scientists worldwide and health personnel have not prepared adequately. There were neither known medications to kill the virus nor preventive measures. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended several drugs to help relieve the symptoms. For instance, baricitinib for clients with severe coronavirus, the medicine suppresses overstimulation of the immune system. The second medicine is sotrovimab, which is commended for patients with underlying conditions such as hypertension. The illness has been rapidly replicating, resulting in new variants, becoming more baleful than the original one. Researchers from all over the world have been working tirelessly to find a cure for COVID-19. They have made several vaccines, including Moderna, AstraZeneca, Johnson &Johnson, and Pfizer.

Moderna is an RNA vaccine aimed at protecting people against COVID-19. It is administered intramuscularly in two shots after 28 days from the first shot for persons only above 18 years. A booster shot is recommended five months after completion of the primary series. Its side effects include tenderness, swelling, chills, vomiting, joint aches, and headaches. AstraZeneca is a non-replicating viral vector vaccine administered intramuscularly in two doses with a 8-12 week interval (Angeli et al., 2021). It is likely to counter the new variants, effectively reducing the spread of the virus.

Pfizer vaccine is an RNA in nature, and it is administered intramuscularly. Two shots 21 days apart are recommended for all ages above five years, with a booster dose five months after the initial vaccination. WHO recommends it for individuals above 18 years old with a booster dose two months later (Angeli et al., 2021). In addition, those who have had a severe reaction to Moderna are indicated for the dose. Lastly, Johnson &Johnson is a non-replicating viral vector vaccine given as a single shot. Likely side effects include fever, swelling, redness, and pain at the injection site.

Several scientists suggest that vaccines protect against serious illnesses requiring hospitalization. Getting vaccinated against coronavirus might have benefits such as saving lives. There is also evidence that there is a high likelihood of vaccinated individuals not transmitting the disease to others. However, there are stereotypes about COVID-19 vaccines since studies indicate that some people believe the vaccine has more disadvantages than benefits. Many people think vaccines might be a biological weapon to reduce the population.

The topic of vaccination has been widely studied across the globe, asserting that high rates of vaccination in children prevent the spread of childhood infectious diseases. Despite evidence of its effectiveness, parents in some countries seem to refuse immunizing children (Socol et al., 2020). The basis for their argument is that some of the doses cause further sickness and present uncertainty. Therefore, this raises a concern about whether the injections should be mandatory or voluntary. Other factors that may cause hesitancy include religious beliefs, societal norms, and lack of knowledge (Machingaidze et al., 2021). Social media has made anti-vaccination movements trend, hence reducing immunization rates. This is similar to COVID-19 vaccination since a proportion seems to think there is any uncertainty about the doses due to decreased transparency. Also, others might lack information concerning inoculation and long-term safety data of the vaccines. However, as stated earlier, numerous studies suggest that immunization reduces the risk of death, hospitalizations, and the spread of the virus.

Governments have been struggling with the pandemic due to the emergence of new strains, which contribute to considerations of restrictions such as lockdowns to curb the spread. This results in a dilemma since the citizens have criticized most states for imposing mandatory lockdowns. The latter reduces the spread of the virus but has social, emotional, economic, and physical disadvantages. There seem to exist laws governing every activity conducted concerning human lives. According to article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), the entitlement to life is of the most importance hence should be protected by the law (Sullivan, 2018). Therefore, the state is expected to take appropriate measures to safeguard life by protecting populations at risk. The regulation suggests that government should refrain from intentional and unlawful killings.

Some states might want to achieve herd immunity, where a more significant proportion of citizens become immune to the disease making transmission from one person to another unlikely. Consequently, in the context of a health emergency, a vaccine may be made mandatory for people who need it. This policy has been adopted by various countries such as Canada and Australia, especially in the health sector, protecting frontline workers. European researchers suggest that it protects those who depend on herd immunity. In other countries, such as France, a focus has been placed on the education sector, where children who have not been vaccinated are not allowed in schools.

From a public health perspective, mandatory vaccination would be of greater importance, and states must protect the citizens. However, they should consider whether forceful inoculation would interfere with their rights and whether the interference would be lawful. According to article 8 of ECHR, a person is entitled to respect private and family life (Sullivan, 2018). Therefore, individuals need to have control over their actions regarding their bodies. The government may enact the law, ensuring that public authorities have no interference in an individual’s life.

Rolling out vaccines to societies may have been conducted unfairly. There is a possibility that rich countries receive more jabs than third-world countries; for example, more doses are administered in Europe compared to Africa. Moreover, voluntary uptake of the injection has not been achieved. Education could be a possible reason for this since most learned individuals may have fewer doubts about shots. The less educated people would probably have a hunch that the jabs would cause more harm than good, resulting in reduced uptake of the former.

COVID-19 Restrictions

Since the outbreak of the pandemic, governments all over the world have been trying to reduce its spread. Several measures may have been established by local authorities to curb the extent; for instance, lockdowns, wearing masks, observing distance, isolation for the confirmed positive patients, and handwashing in public areas. One of the symptoms of coronavirus is fever; hence temperature screening has been made mandatory before entry into institutions. Of more significant concern are the enforced restraints, such as capacity and obligatory showing of negative COVID tests for vacations and events.

The disease is generally spread through close contact with infected people. This might have led to establishing a capacity limitation directive requiring individuals to maintain one meter’s physical, social distance. The number of people needed to attend important events such as burials was reduced. There is a possibility of increased mental health illnesses, such as depression, due to denied access to bury a loved one (Terry et al., 2020). This coincided with some of the norms of different societies, such as Africans, which require a large group of people to celebrate ceremonies such as circumcision. The number of passengers commuting by vehicles and trains was lowered. The effect of the precincts enforced was a drop in the spread of coronavirus.

The other constraint is that people must provide a negative test result to travel and attend selected events. The number of folks who attended voluntary testing in some countries might be below. This is possibly attributed to the testing technique, such as nose swabs, which can irritate at some instances. The fear of undergoing the test may interfere with one’s desire to move and attend events. Residents of financially stable countries might fold away less frequently. This is attributed to reduced PCR testing since the test costs more than other tests. The media suggest that some states require proof of vaccination before services are issued to the citizens. This may be a violation of some of the rights of the individuals since they may be denied access to food that is purchased in the mall. However, as discussed earlier, this curbs the spread of the disease.

Some world regions might have been subjected to lockdowns to lower the spread. This might have been effective for the red zones. However, several activities were impaired, such as business; being in a lockdown meant that people could not travel from one region to another (Ghosal et al., 2021). The most affected were drivers who depended on transport paid by commuters for their survival. This rendered them jobless hence the economy of most countries was shaken. Studies suggest an economic burden and inflation since most jobs were suspended.

Some terms were made familiar since the pandemic began, such as quarantine. The latter is a period of isolation for individuals suspected of having coronavirus. They are required to isolate for 14 days, which they are supposed to reduce all contact with other people. This raises the argument of whether it curbs the spread of the disease or not. Researchers tend to associate isolation with a reduced spread of the infection. Home confinement requires people to isolate themselves in a room where they are provided for services they need. However, this might not work for financially disabled families who hardly eat and have small houses. The spread of the disease in such circumstances may not be controlled effectively.


Since the world was hit by a pandemic that paralyzed all activities, various vaccines and several restrictions have been passed to minimize its spread and effects on individuals and the world. The disease often spreads faster, causing massive damage such as deaths and increased morbidity. This has caught WHO’s attention, which led to cooperation with health officials and scientists worldwide in coming up with regulations to curb the spread. A cure has not yet been found, but several vaccines have been established through the hard work of medical scientists. However, the turnout for vaccination might not have been as expected, resulting in some states enforcing mandatory injections for their citizens against human rights. Before discovering the vaccines, it was known that there was a possibility the disease might be spread through contact with droplets and infected people. Societies have been enforcing restrictions such as capacity, lockdowns, and checking for negative tests before allowing people to travel to curb the spread. Regardless of the adverse effects of the limitations, they still reduce the spread of the infection.


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