The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

Topic: Neurology
Words: 661 Pages: 2

Input from the senses, processing of information (data integration), and output from the muscles are the three fundamental functions of the nervous system. Nerve cells, glia, and the connections between them are the primary means the body gathers data and information (Mitchell et al., 2017). Hyperactive neurons and synapses connect the nervous system’s neurons to the various parts of the body and the other nerve junctions. Neurons’ activity is defined by how neurons communicate with one another, regardless of their size or location. In most cases, they are responsible for relaying impulses from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and the brain (Mitchell et al., 2017). The third step in the process is for the brain’s information processing system to interpret the input. The term “motor output” refers to sending signals from the spinal cord and the brain to the glands and muscles of the body after completing the data integration process in the brain (Mitchell et al., 2017). The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system are the two components that make up a person’s nervous system (PNS).

The brain and spinal cord are part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. At the same time, the central processing unit refers to the part of the body that is the brain. In the central nervous system (CNS), several areas are responsible for processing motor, sensory, and informational impulses. These centers categorize into higher centers, which interact with the brain via signaling pathways, and lower centers, including the brain stem and spinal cord (Mitchell et al., 2017). The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is a vast neural network that connects the head and spine to the brain and spinal cord. It is also known as the so-called peripheral nervous system. These cells are essential for recognizing both the body’s signals and those from the outside world. This data is sent to the central nervous system by afferent neurons that have short axons through the afferent route. The PNS, on the other hand, is made up of neurons that are around one meter in length.

The PNS divides into two sections, each with a distinct function. The autonomic nervous system controls internal organs, blood vessels, the heart, and smooth muscles (Mitchell et al., 2017). In contrast, the nervous system regulates all of the body’s internal organs (Mitchell et al., 2017). When nerve cells from the peripheral nervous system connect the two processes, they create a central nervous system component. Consequently, the following are the most significant distinctions between the two systems:

Differences between the CNS and the PNS

Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System
Comprised of the brain as well as the spinal cord. Nerve axons from both the spinal cord and the cranium are included in this category.
All the body’s voluntary activities are controlled by this organ. Controls and influences all of the body’s involuntary activities.
The brain is in charge of the essential functions of the body. Exercise command over a number of different processes, such as those involving blood arteries, internal organs, cardiac muscles, and smooth muscles.
The PNS has connections to a variety of sensory organs, tendons, and glands located in the periphery of the body. Signals from the body’s sensory organs are carried to the central nervous system via the afferent nerves.

For researchers to have a clearer picture of how the nervous system works, they have to separate it into the central and peripheral nervous systems. Despite this, the autonomic and parasympathetic branches of the nervous system are necessary for life and work together. The Central Nervous System (CNS) would be unable to react to its environment if the PNS were not there since it would not receive any sensory information. When determining what course of action to take in response to a specific occurrence, the PNS weighs significantly on the CNS. Awareness is generated in humans due to the coordinated activity between the CNS and the PNS.


Mitchell, T., Bogardus, D., & Bauer, J. (2017). The nervous system. New Leaf Publishing Group.

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