There is a direct correlation between the quality of care provided by nurses and patient outcomes. Nursing care models include varying levels of administration and coverage. While some focus on delivering high-quality care to a large number of patients, others are more concerned with meeting the unique requirements of each patient. Each hospital or institution can adopt a unique approach to patient care via nursing care systems. For the patient’s best care, the patient and the medical staff must work together to make decisions. Three important components are required for the existence of shared decision-making. This includes recognizing the need for a choice, comprehending the available evidence, and considering the patients’ beliefs and preferences. Nurse managers must acquire the characteristics of transactional leaders, which have been shown to be helpful in team nursing. Nurses should acquire the skills essential to providing high-quality, timely patient care. Care coordination responsibilities need the use of critical thinking, logic, and clinical judgment.
Types of Nursing Care Delivery Models
Various nursing care delivery has developed throughout the past century to satisfy the dynamic demands of patients and health departments. Every nursing practitioner makes a significant contribution to patient outcomes and how patients perceive their health care. The administration and coverage of nursing care models differ. While some concentrate on providing high-quality treatment to a significant group of patients, some are more focused on personalized needs. Nursing care systems are adaptable, enabling each hospital or facility to develop its patient care approach.
Functional Nursing Model
The functional nursing approach is an old, conventional type of care delivery. The approach focuses on a hierarchical system of who executes various jobs based upon their extent of education, qualification, and skills. It utilizes an assembly-line technique of patient care that may bring cost benefits for the facility since it optimizes each employee’s skill set (Carter et al., 2018). This nursing paradigm works effectively in moments of great demand, such as during epidemics (Carter et al., 2018). Nevertheless, functional nursing offers less holistic care than so many patients require since the nurses concentrate on their specific responsibilities instead of the general health or development of the patient.
Nurse surveys consistently give the team nursing approach good ratings. Novice nurses have the chance to work alongside and learn from more senior colleagues. Similarly, skilled nurses report feeling better empowered while working in a team nursing paradigm (Carter et al., 2018). Additionally, medical institutions profit from the team nursing method because it enables novice nurses to gain and learn more rapidly, increasing their worth as staff assets. Additionally, the strategy fosters and enhances communication between team members, which may result in enhanced patient care. Team nursing requires registered nurses with strong leadership abilities to serve as team leaders.
Primary Nursing Model
Primary nursing models allocate patients to primarily registered nurses responsible for their management throughout their stay in the hospital. By closely monitoring a patient’s advancement, the Registered nurse can offer an extra comprehensive level of care. The primary nursing technique originated in the 1970s and rapidly achieved popularity (Carter et al., 2018). It resolved the inadequacies of earlier nursing models, such as team nursing and functional, which resulted in discrepancies in inpatient care due to task-oriented strategies. Primary nursing is very effective in satisfying the requirements of patients with complicated medical problems.
Total Patient Care Model
Total Patient Care necessitates that a patient gets all their care from a single nurse. The attending nurse generally cares for the client from the start to the end of their medical care. Total patient care necessitates that the nurse takes on all clients’ responsibilities (Carter et al., 2018). They must keep a careful eye on the client’s status and maintain close communication with the patient’s doctors. Patients often react positively to care since their nurses react to their requirements promptly.
Case management is concerned with the administrative aspects of health care. A registered nurse case manager reviews a patient’s treatment to ascertain the patient’s healthcare expenditures and the possibility of coverage by the insurance (Carter et al., 2018). Case managers monitor a patient’s treatment trend to ascertain the patient’s expected discharge date and post-discharge care requirements. Appropriate case management benefits each health practitioner who is involved. The case manager may assist healthcare institutions in avoiding financial losses due to unforeseen coverage rejections.
Elements of Shared Decision Making
Three critical components must exist in order for shared decision-making to exist. The first element is recognizing the need for a decision. By thoroughly involving clients in health care choices, shared decision-making provides an alternative approach to attaining optimum care (Bomhof-Roordink et al., 2019). Yet, even for professionals, it may be challenging to spot instances where more than one therapeutic alternative exists, and a choice must be made. To maximize the potential for both sides, health care practitioners must learn to notice and communicate such occurrences to their patients. At that time, the clinician and patient may agree on their respective roles in the decision-making process.
The second element is gaining an understanding of the best available evidence. Once it is recognized that a choice must be taken, all parties must grasp the best possible medical evidence. To accomplish this aim, the evidence must be presented in a coherent manner—a process made more difficult by patients’ diverse degrees of health literacy (Bomhof-Roordink et al., 2019). The last component is taking into consideration the values and preferences of the patients. There is considerable consensus that shared decision entails either defining or soliciting patients’ values and preferences. However, these mechanisms are not even represented in a modest way in the majority of clinical practice.
Characteristics and Traits of a Transactional Leader
Transaction leaders regulate rewards and penalty systems as well as encourage team members. This implies that employees are compensated for purposeful conduct and penalized for any deviation. Additionally, motivation keeps the employee engaged in their own self-interest. For instance, when workers accomplish a single task, they are often rewarded — little attention is placed on cooperation or team performance. Transaction leaders are more likely to approach challenges analytically, problem-solving, or pragmatically, taking into account all practical constraints and possibilities (Richards, 2020). They are always planning and seek to ensure that everything happens according to plan.
Importance of staff involvement in a decentralized decision-making model
Decentralization empowers employees to make decisions on an individual basis. Nurse managers delegate judgment call to the lowest possible level; all nursing workforce units (Licensed practical nurses and Registered Nurses), as well as unit nursing assistants. This increases employee engagement, which promotes cooperation and teamwork, as well as a positive work environment—developing nursing practices through skilled problem-solving teams or shared governance forums. Shared governance is a popular decentralized organizational structure used in healthcare institutions. It promotes an environment in which leaders and employees take a more active role in building the organization.
Application of Clinical Care Coordination Skills in Nursing Practice
Clinical care integration includes making sound clinical judgments, setting goals, being planned effectively, making the most use of available resources, and continuously evaluating care activities. Nurses should learn the necessary skills to deliver good and prompt patient care. This is often conducted first on a specific patient, then eventually on groups of people. Care coordination duties demand the use of critical thinking, reasoning, and clinical judgment (Carter et al., 2018). Clinical judgment is predicated on the capacity to implement the nursing process and form a nursing diagnosis. When a nurse begins a patient assessment, the initial task is to undertake a focused yet thorough evaluation of the patient’s state. This is important to get to know the client and make correct clinical judgments
Principles to Follow in the Appropriate Delegation of Patient Care Activities
Nursing care delivery systems define how the nursing staff provides patient care. In a teamwork nursing approach, the nurse’s role is unique from that of a nurse in a primary nursing approach. As a nurse, it is critical to determine whether to undertake an intervention alone or delegate it to a member of the nursing team. Delegation is determined by continual evaluations of the clients’ needs and particular preferences, not by a particular intervention. Members of the nursing team appreciate those who take charge of their work and work in tandem with one another to meet the changing demands of their patients. A nurse may require assistance from coworkers while doing more difficult or physically strenuous operations. For example, a nurse may work with a nurse assistant more efficiently to change a dressing in a deep cut wound when the nurse uses the clothes, and the nurse assistant helps position the patient and transfer over supplies.
Carter, N., Valaitis, R. K., Lam, A., Feather, J., Nicholl, J., & Cleghorn, L. (2018). Navigation delivery models and roles of navigators in primary care: A scoping literature review. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1), 1-13. Web.
Richards, A. (2020). Exploring the benefits and limitations of transactional leadership in healthcare. Nursing Standard, 35(12), 46-50. Web.
Bomhof-Roordink, H., Gärtner, F. R., Stiggelbout, A. M., & Pieterse, A. H. (2019). Key components of shared decision making models: A systematic review. BMJ open, 9(12), e031763. Web.