The cardiovascular system is engaged in the circulation of blood through the body. Thanks to it, organs and tissues receive the necessary oxygen, as well as remove carbon dioxide and other harmful substances. That is why the importance of the cardiovascular system for the body is immeasurable; it is responsible for the coordinated work of all components of the body. However, sometimes, the system can fail and lead to terrible consequences. That is why it is clear and detailed research is so important for scientists and doctors.
The cardiovascular system helps the body to get useful substances and get rid of waste. In addition, it contains the main components of the tissue such as red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells. The first ones provide transportation of gases, one of which is the most important-oxygen. The second components are responsible for stopping blood loss from the wound; protect the walls of blood vessels, in case of damage to them. The latter are the most important component in the immune system. They protect the body from foreign microorganisms and have a preventive effect in diseases.
The pulse pace acts as the most informative methods for assessing the body’s feedback to motor exercise, but also an indicator of the state of the body’s health level connected with a complex of physiological changes that occur with standard active work. The other significant indicator of the vital activity of people is blood circulation in arterial vessels. It shows the state of the circulatory system and the speed of vascular blood flow. The main factor that is of significant importance is the force of contraction of the heart muscle, which pushes out blood. In addition, the strength of the resistance of the vascular walls that restrain blood flow is important.
Reimers et al. (2018) state that “regular exercise and physical activity throughout a lifespan can improve life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy” (p. 1). The results of studies show that patients who lead a sedentary lifestyle have a 20-50% higher risk of developing diseases associated with the cardiovascular system. This is compared with those who lead a more active lifestyle and perform significant muscle loads.
Methods and Materials
The laboratory work was carried out under the strict supervision of a professor of an educational institution. The main purpose of the laboratory work was to study information related to the cardiovascular system and blood pressure of a person. In addition, the task was to find out how physical activity affects alterations in arterial pressure and the frequency of heartbeat. It is also important to note that the magnitude and rate of change in blood pressure varies depending on age, gender, baseline values, fitness level, heart rate, concomitant diseases and exercise protocol. The medical and scientific benefits of measuring blood pressure during exercise may increase with the establishment of regulatory ranges that combine such variables and determine models with a better prognosis of cardiovascular events.
The experiment on the influence of physical activity on the heart system was conducted on myself. At the start of the study, control measurements of the organism’s capabilities were carried out. The data obtained showed blood pressure-120/80, pulse-80 beats per minute and respiration-26 respiratory movements per minute. During the experiment, seven training sessions were conducted over the course of a week. Before and after each training session, pulse and blood pressure measurements were taken. The assessment of the functional state of the cardiovascular system was carried out using a functional test consisting of 30 squats, 10 push-ups and 30 twists of the press from the prone position. All the results are shown in the table below:
|Week||Blood Pressure before the experiment||Blood Pressure after the experiment||Heart Rate before the experiment||Heart Rate after the experiment|
Table 1. Results of the experiment.
The results at the beginning of the experiment showed that the difference in blood pressure before and after physical activity was significant. After the end of the actions, the pressure was 132/98, which was higher than the initial measurements. During the experiment, the difference in pressure was not so great and was 126/85. After physical exertion, the pulse could increase to 130 beats per minute. The difference with the initial measurements was 50 beats. During the experiment, the heart rate after exercise gradually decreased and by the end of the study the difference was 10 beats.
Blood pressure has two main indicators: the upper and lower values. The first number shows the systolic pressure or the force with which the heart pushes blood into the arteries during contraction. The second number shows the diastolic pressure. It is responsible for the pressure inside the artery when the heart is in a relaxed state. An increase in these indicators by at least 10 mm Hg may indicate an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. People with high blood pressure are more likely to have problems of cerebral circulation, there is an ischemic heart disease or damage to the blood vessels of the legs. Measuring and knowing the norm of blood pressure can be the answer to problems with frequent manifestations of discomfort, such as headache, weakness, dizziness.
Physical exercise has a significant impact on blood pressure and the human body as a whole. In conservative and regular use, they tone and strengthen the cardiovascular system. Sports can significantly increase or decrease the level of pressure. The growth of arterial pressure after physical exertion is considered a normal reaction, since there is a rise in the force of bloodstream and the release of adrenaline. It is important to monitor a person’s well-being when performing physical exertion, in order to avoid harmful consequences.
As already mentioned, constant and correct physical activity can bring great benefits to a person and his cardiovascular system. Lopes et al. (2021) mentioned that aerobic training lowers ambulatory BP among people with resistant hypertension. However, in the case of abuse of physical activity and overload, it can lead to undesirable results that will negatively affect the human condition (Abolahrari-Shirazi et al., 2019). Performing exercises for the development of physical skills and abilities requires a fairly accurate distribution and organization of physical activity and monitoring the reaction of the body.
In a person with little physical activity, the vessels respond with a spasm during any load. With correct training, the vessels, on the contrary, expand and this effect persists for a long time. When performing physical activity, it is necessary to ensure that there is no shortness of breath, pain in the heart, arrhythmia. An increase in physical activity entails serious consequences. With excessive activity, the heart rate increases, the need for oxygen increases. Along with this, blood pressure increases. Thus, if the physical load on the body is greater than the proper one, then gradually the body will not perform its proper functions, various diseases will develop.
The training effect of physical exertion on the activity of the cardiovascular system is optimal for duration of twenty to forty minutes three or four times a week or an hour twice a week. In addition, active games, such as football, volleyball, basketball, tennis, or intensive work on the farm or in the garden are also useful and can be considered physical exercises. However, the effect of these types of activities on the stabilization of blood pressure and the cardiovascular system is less pronounced.
The results of the experiment are supportive of the hypothesis that physical exercise has a direct effect on blood pressure and heart rate. It was supported by an experiment that showed how these indicators changed before and after exercise. With regular physical exercises, the number of red blood cells and thus hemoglobin increases. As a result of this process, the oxygen capacity of the blood increases and the body’s resistance to colds and infectious diseases. Moreover, there is an increase in the activity of white blood cells, which leads to an acceleration of recovery processes after significant blood loss. Thus, physical activity has a positive effect not only on the external component of the human body, but also on other organs, in particular the circulatory system, improving and improving their work.
Abolahrari-Shirazi, S., Kojuri, J., Bagheri, Z., & Rojhani-Shirazi, Z. (2019). Effect of exercise training on heart rate variability in patients with heart failure after percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering, 9(1), 97-104.
Lopes, S., Mesquita-Bastos, J., Garcia, C., Bertoquini, S., Ribau, V., Teixeira, M., Ribeiro, I.P., Melo, J., Oliveira, J., Figueiredo, D., Guimarães, G., Pescatello, L., Polonia, J., Alves, A.J., & Ribeiro, F. (2021). Effect of exercise training on ambulatory blood pressure among patients with resistant hypertension: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiology. Web.
Reimers, A. K., Knapp, G., & Reimers, C. D. (2018). Effects of exercise on the resting heart rate: a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7(12). Web.