The more a pregnant women drinks during pregnancy, the greater the babies’ risk for problems is likely to be. If expectant mothers drink heavily throughout their pregnancy, their babies are at even greater risk of having congenital disabilities than if they had occasional drinks while pregnant. Alcohol is a teratogen that can cause many congenital disabilities in the developing fetus(DeJong et al.. 2019). The severity of these defects depends on the amount, timing and pattern of alcohol use during pregnancy.
Alcohol Birth-Related Abnormalities and Genetic influence
Among the abnormalities caused by alcohol consumption includes fetal alcohol syndrome. According to DeJong et al. (2019), FAS is a spectrum of disorders with wide-ranging effects, including physical growth deficiencies, intellectual impairment, and behavioural problems. These effects caused by FAS are unfortunately irreversible after birth. Other Alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) include heart malformations such as ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect and pulmonary valve stenosis; cleft palate; limb malformations such as clubfoot or missing fingers or toes; ear anomalies; eye malformations such as narrowed eyelids or crossed eyes; and kidney malformations such as horseshoe kidney.
The effects of alcohol on the body are influenced by genetics. The severity of the effects of alcohol depends on several factors, including how much expectant mothers drink and whether they have other risk factors for health problems related to alcohol use (Haan et al,. 2021). Alcohol affects people in different ways when consumed in different amount. Some people have a genetic predisposition for alcohol-related birth defects, making them more susceptible to damage from drinking alcohol during pregnancy (Haan et al,. 2021). The genes that influence the risk for alcohol dependence are likely related to brain function and structure since this is where alcohol exerts its effects. These genes may influence people’s sensitivity to alcohol’s pleasurable effects or how quickly they develop tolerance or dependence on it. The main genes associated with alcohol dependence are ADH1B and ADH1C (Haan et al,. 2021).
The Use of Antibiotics
Antibiotics do not work on viral infections because viruses are not living creatures that can be killed. A virus enters your body, attaches itself to healthy cells and uses them to make more viruses (Desai & Undale, 2019). The only way to fight a virus is with antiviral drugs, which slow down or stop the reproduction of viruses in your body. Antibiotics and antiviral drugs have similar mechanisms of action, but they are not the same. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, and antivirals are used to treat viral infections.
Alternatives to Consider if Patient Insist on Antibiotics to Cure a Virus
The first step is to review the patient’s symptoms and determine if they are consistent with a viral infection. Secondly, administering over-the-counter pain relievers, such as aspirin or acetaminophen, can help relieve headaches and body aches. If so, the practitioner will need to explain that antibiotics are ineffective for treating a virus and that unnecessary use of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance (Desai & Undale, 2019). If the patient still insists on an antibiotic, the nurse practitioner may wish to consider prescribing an antiviral medication instead.
These medications aim to reduce the severity of illness in patients with influenza rather than cure it completely. They may also be effective against other viruses, such as a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus which causes the common cold. In the case of a sore throat, the clinician can recommend gargling with saltwater and placing a hot compress on the neck (Desai & Undale, 2019). Again, advise the patient on the importance of resting and drinking plenty of fluids which help the body fight off the infection. Finally, offer reassurance to the patient that most viral infections clear up on their own within a week or two.
DeJong, K., Olyaei, A., & Lo, J. O. (2019). Alcohol use in pregnancy. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology, 62(1), 142.
Desai, S. M., & Undale, V. R. (2019). Antibiotic overuse and resistance: an awareness study. Age (Average age in years), 18, 22-8.
Haan, E., Sallis, H. M., Ystrom, E., Njølstad, P. R., Andreassen, O. A., Reichborn‐Kjennerud, T. & Zuccolo, L. (2021). Maternal and offspring genetic risk score analyses of fetal alcohol exposure and attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder risk in offspring. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 45(10), 2090-2102.