From the time fertilization takes place in a woman’s body to the time of delivery, there is a process involved. Among the processes is fertilization, where the egg gets attached to the uterus after having traveled from the ovaries. In some cases, the egg might fail to attach itself to the uterus and instead attach itself to the cervix, the fallopian tube, or the abdominal cavity. Fertilization is meant to and should occur in the uterus for the fetus to properly develop. In case of ectopic pregnancies, immediate medical attention is needed to prevent any complications to the woman’s health.
Usually, ectopic pregnancies can be manifested by different symptoms and signs (s/s). One of the major symptoms is bleeding, which can either be heavy or light. Experiencing unbearable pain on one side of the abdomen is another sign that can be experienced. Ectopic pregnancy can be hard to home diagnose since the symptoms might be the same as normal pregnancies at the early stages (Sepilian & Wood, 2020). Finally, one may experience fainting and dizziness, and pressure on the rectum. The main pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy is a distortion or the obstruction of the fallopian tubes. Although the mechanism responsible for ectopic pregnancies is not yet known, anatomic obstruction and abnormal consensus are the main possibilities.
Every two women in a group of one hundred experience ectopic pregnancies, and most are not aware until they experience severe symptoms, which puts them in danger of losing their lives. It is hard to diagnose an ectopic pregnancy physically. Hence it is always advisable for women suspected of having an ectopic pregnancy to visit their doctors soon (Sepilian & Wood, 2020). One of the main diagnoses is transvaginal ultrasound, which involves the insertion of an instrument similar to a wand in the woman’s private parts to see whether the fetus is in the right place. Another form of diagnosis is through blood tests by testing the levels of progesterone and hCG (Healthline, 2018). In case it is too late to do all these and the fallopian tube ruptures, an emergency surgery has to be performed.
Different forms of treatment can be offered, but either way, the pregnancy has to be terminated since it is risky to keep the pregnancy. One of the major treatment options is a medication that is administered in case the pregnancy is not likely to cause immediate complications, administered in form of an injection (Stabile et al., 2020). The main type of medication used is methotrexate, which then leads to a forced miscarriage. Surgery is another form of treatment that is used in case of internal rupture or damage (Stabile et al., 2020). Good reproductive health can reduce the chances of ectopic pregnancy, as there are no known prevention measures.
Ectopic pregnancy can occur in the fallopian tubes, the cervix, or the abdominal cavity. The signs and symptoms include severe abdominal pain, nausea, fainting, dizziness, and spots that can vary from light to heavy. The main diagnosis includes a blood test and transvaginal ultrasound. The main treatment options include medication and surgery depending on how far the pregnancy is and the internal damages caused.
Healthline. (2018). Ectopic Pregnancy: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments (D. R. Willson, Ed.). Healthline. Web.
Sepilian, V. P., & Wood, E. (2020). Ectopic Pregnancy: Practice Essentials, Background, Etiology (M. E. Rivlin, Ed.). Medscape.com. Web.
Stabile, G., Romano, F., Buonomo, F., Zinicola, G., & Ricci, G. (2020). Conservative Treatment of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy with the Combination of Mifepristone and Methotrexate: Our Experience and Review of the Literature. BioMed Research International, 2020, e8703496. Web.