Diabetes is the general name for a group of metabolic diseases. Distinguish between diabetes mellitus, insipidus, renal, saline diabetes, and phosphate diabetes. The first type is the most common – diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease when the body experiences problems with insulin production or processing (De Boer et al., 1275). The critical diagnostic factors are a constant urge to urinate and drink water, including getting up at night. Weight loss and blurred vision are also signals of diabetes and the need to see a doctor. In addition, geographic location and predisposition is a significant risk factor. Diabetes mellitus, as the most common, includes the following symptoms: craving for sweets and increased appetite; itching of the skin; violation of the wound healing process, susceptibility to fungal infections; hair loss and constant weakness and drowsiness.
Symptoms and Treatment
Prevention and treatment for different groups of diabetes vary slightly. Maintaining healthy body weight, maintaining a physically active lifestyle, eating a small amount of sugar and saturated fats, and avoiding smoking are essential safeguards against these diseases. In addition, these measures on the part of a person save him not only from diabetes but also from many other diseases.
In the early stages, diagnosis is carried out by testing to determine the level of blood glucose. Diabetes treatment is most often based on a special diet that lowers blood glucose and levels of other known risk factors that damage blood vessels. For the diet duration, a person is highly recommended to give up tobacco and engage in physical activity, exercise, and other similar recreational stress. Follow-up monitoring of treatment also includes glucose control, blood pressure control, and foot care with comfortable shoes, hygiene, and regular check-ups (Cho et al., 279). If such actions do not help, then doctors resort to medication. It is characterized most often by the direct administration of insulin, less often by various inhibitors and short-acting stimulants of insulin secretion (Fang et al., 21). Finally, additional testing is sometimes ordered during the treatment of patients for retinopathy and blood lipid levels.
These measures are necessary to prevent and prevent the possible consequences of diabetes, which include many severe complications and possible illnesses. First, the risk of heart attack and stroke is twice as high (Fang et al., 21). Second, damage to the nerves of the lower extremities can lead to ulcers, infections, and amputation (Fang et al., 21). Finally, the consequences also include possible blindness and kidney failure.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a hereditary disease. If the mother is sick, developing this disease in a child is 5-7%. If the father is sick – 10%. However, heredity determines the development of this disease by only one-third (Cho et al., 274). There were no significant differences in predisposition by sex, while nationality plays a much more important historical role. In Europe, they are more prone to diabetes than in China, almost tenfold (Cho et al., 275). Even in the United States, studies show that people of Asian descent are much less likely to develop diabetes than, for example, Hispanics or whites (Cheng, 2397). However, research data still cannot answer why particular races and nations have a lower predisposition (Cheng, 2397). Ultimately, there are many causes of diabetes beyond race.
The impact of diabetes on life includes the mandatory measures to control blood glucose using special medical devices and careful monitoring of meals, and timely administration of insulin. The rest of the daily routine of a person with diabetes depends on the severity of the disease, the presence of other ailments, and much more. Diabetes can affect driving, exercise, travel, medication, sexuality, and pregnancy, but these effects are negligible with proper treatment and a healthy lifestyle (Cheng, 2392). It should be noted that these problems affect not only people with diabetes – at one time or another in their lives, most people face them. In addition, each person’s body is unique, and only through trial and error is it possible to find out precisely what is contraindicated for the body and what diabetes will not have any effect on. To understand how blood sugar levels respond to various factors, a person will better understand their body and meet its needs promptly.
Current diabetes research is looking at the reciprocal effects of the course and consequences between diabetes and COVID-19. Scientists have already shown that people with diabetes are at high risk of contracting COVID-19 due to the lack of a robust immune response due to metabolic disorders (Singh, 303). These studies are highly relevant now, as the whole world is focused on combating the pandemic. Recommendations made by researchers include the development of telemedicine, which will reduce the risks of morbidity and improve preventive information for people.
The study of diabetes due to the spread of COVID-19 has become an extremely pressing issue since this disease contributes to infection. In addition, many aspects of diabetes have not yet been fully understood, such as explaining racial predisposition. However, over the years of research, a diabetes care program has been developed successfully followed by patients and doctors. Even though the development of diabetes leads to severe consequences, timely prevention, and a healthy lifestyle will help protect the body from negative consequences.
Cheng, Yiling J., et al. “Prevalence of diabetes by race and ethnicity in the United States, 2011-2016.” Jama 322.24 (2019): 2389-2398.
Cho, NH1, et al. “IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045.” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 138 (2018): 271-281.
De Boer, Ian H., et al. “Diabetes and hypertension: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association.” Diabetes Care 40.9 (2017): 1273-1284.
Fang, Lei, George Karakiulakis, and Michael Roth. “Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection?.” The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine 8.4 (2020): e21.
Singh, Awadhesh Kumar, et al. “Diabetes in COVID-19: Prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations.” Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 14.4 (2020): 303-310.