Development During the Preschool Years

Topic: Pediatrics
Words: 276 Pages: 1

Cognitive Development at the Age of Four

A mother should expect several significant cognitive changes in a 4-year-old child. Simply put, their cognition is undergoing rapid development. During this period, preschoolers begin to understand the phenomena associated with numbers, namely time and the idea of counting. Their memory develops, and preschoolers become able to memorize several parts of the story. It is worth noting that a four-year-old child “understands the idea of “same” and “different” (Cognitive development: Preschool, n.d., para. 2). Piaget and Inhelder (2019) state that children at the age of four can think symbolically. Moreover, their drawings become more complex and detailed, which shows their more developed perception and understanding of people and objects.

Emotional Development at the Age of Four

Their range of emotions is also becoming more diverse and diverse. They become aware of emotional states such as frustration, annoyance, and embarrassment and can describe them. They learn to hide the truth about things and actions if they fear or feel guilty (Social and emotional development for preschoolers, 2018). It is because, according to Erickson, “children are now cognizant of the impact of their actions” (Killam & Degges-White, 2017, p. 37). The control and management of negative emotions are also improving.

Language Development at the Age of Four

Children’s rapid language development at the age of four is because they begin interacting with the outside world. Their spoken vocabulary grows exponentially, and they begin to understand basic grammar rules (Oswalt, n.d.). Four-year-olds are more and more skillfully using different forms of words. It is also necessary to mention that they start to compresence the unspoken and implied meanings of phrases and sentences.


Cognitive development: Preschool. (n.d.). Virtual Lab School. 2021, Web.

Killam, W. K., & Degges-White, S. (2017). College student development: Applying theory to practice on the diverse campus. Springer Publishing Company.

Oswalt, A. (n.d.). Early childhood cognitive development: Language development. Gracepoint. Web.

Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (2019). The psychology of the child. Basic Books.

Social and emotional development for preschoolers. (2018). Victoria State Government. Web.

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