Overview of the Problem
Working with patients who suffer from breast cancer, I have faced a number of research controversies concerning the women that should have Mammogram at the age of 50. In my opinion, this finding is premised on a number of biases, specifically when it comes to the patients with strong family history of breast cancer. Consequently, I consider it reasonable to review the literature and collect data supporting my argument because my own empirical observations show that even patients of much younger age can suffer from this pathology. More importantly, having mammography at earlier stages will considerably minimize the risk of cancer development.
Methodology and Appropriateness of the Research
In order to prove the above-presented argument, it is necessary to analyze the problem from several retrospective. To begin with, the researches should be done on the historical background of mammography screening in terms of efficiency and application. The next step will involve the identification of the risk groups of women with breast cancer, including the factors contributing to its occurrence, such as genetic preconditions, race, and age. The latter will be discussed in more detail to disapprove the statement concerning its influence of the probability of breast cancer occurrence. Finally, the finding should provide us with more information concerning the reason why women of younger age are more likely to suffer from breast cancer, including their habit, lifestyle, and family history.
Before considering the necessity of introducing mammography for younger women group, it is imperative to track the pre-history of the efficacy of mammography implementations for breast cancer detection. In this respect, Blanks, Given-Wilson, and Moss (1998) provide their studies and a two-view analysis of applying mammography to have found out that the use of one or two mammography screening is equally effective for deterring breast cancer among young women. Despite the fact that researchers admit the importance of randomized controlled trial for getting reliable results, this method should be applied to all women irrespective of age. In addition, age factor should influence the women’s treatment because there are many other factors that have a potent impact on detecting the disease. Haygood et al. (2008) also make a significant focus on the analysis of the prevalence and efficacy of mammography screening. The researchers have found that digital mammography screening takes less time to interpret date, which significantly increases the efficacy and accuracy of the results as well as facilitates the overall process of treatment. Despite the type of screening mammography is still essential defining the breast cancer and fostering the therapy among women of all ages.
The studies presented by Samphao et al., (2009) and Snapp (2006), the researcher insist on the necessity to introduce much more effective approaches to controlling the development of a breast cancer among the women of younger than 50 years old. In particular, this necessity is introduced to the increased rates of having this pathology for very young women and this tendency continues to grow. To enlarge on this more, Yankaskas (2006) recognizes that breast cancer is a relatively rare disease among young movement. However, this pathology remains one of the main reasons of cancer death in the United Stated and other countries in the world. The fact that young women have much lower rate of breast cancer occurrence than older women do, but this does not mean that they do not need careful examination aimed at breast cancer prevention. Moreover, Yankaskas (2006) insists on the fact that due to the “low prevalence of cancer in young women, mammography has low sensitivity, detecting 76 % of 25 cancers in women <35 and 69 % of cancers in women 36-40 in the only study specifically designed to establish age-related accuracy of mammography and ultrasound.”(p. 3). Therefore, beside low efficacy of mammography for women of all ages, younger women still suffer more when being neglected by health care professionals.
Similar views are held by Axelrod et al. (2008) concerning necessity to take into the deepest consideration this risk group of women and provide efficient interventions assisting the nurse professionals in managing all risks and complications properly. Specifically, clinicians should pay more attention to family history, environment, race, genetic preconditions and evaluate the endocrine system rather than rely on women age that by no means point out the probability of having a breast cancer. While supporting this argument, Samphao et al. (2009) admit that the influence of innovating techniques on imaging and testing breast cancer detection remain the least research area, specifically for the women of age 40 and younger. Therefore, a more consistent use of mammography, genetic testing, and other technological devices can considerably facilitate breast cancer detection among young women, which is the primary problem all Breast Reconstruction specialties all over the world.
As it has been mentioned previously, breast cancer risk rates among women of younger age category has been little examined, which another reason why young women are not subject making mammography. Specifically, Bumpers (2005) states, “premenopausal women are at a much higher risk of developing breast cancer from a genetic mutation than are their postmenopausal counterparts” (p. 263). The researcher has also found that the risks are directly connected with the factors that a specific and unique to even very young women. These factors involve parity, oral contraceptives use, and pregnancy. In addition, the studies refer to the analysis of ethnic groups where finding differ significantly. Specifically, the analysis of Jewish population has revealed that frequency of breast cancer in this group is also increased (Bumpers, 2005, p. 263). With regard to the above findings and evidence, the necessity of using mammography is approved once again because young women also need similar care, specifically when it comes to genetics, diets and contemporary lifer style of women.
Decreased use of mammography and other prevention measure among young women is premised on the fact, as it can be understood from the above analysis, that there is insufficient research on young women in breast cancer. In the studies provided by Gould et al. (2006), the researchers focus on the problem of lack of evidence concerning the breast cancer rates among Canadian women of premenopausal age. Notably, the research has found that “young women participant perceive that often the information about, and support for young women did not exist and where the information and support existed it did not ‘fit’ their needs” (Gould et al., 2006, p. 163). Arising from this, no consistent approaches are worked to help young women cope with their health problems and provide specific plan for treatment because this age category is much busier in comparison with older women. Such a problem is primarily predetermined by information deficiency as health care centers fail to provide sufficient support to younger women with different social and cultural background. In order to introduce more effective methods, women should be treated with more regard to genetic and social preconditions.
Due to the increase in public awareness concerning the problem of breast cancer, more and more concerns arise concerning the delivering advice to different categories of women. In such cases, annual mammography is one of the most attractive ways to solve this problem (The challenge of evaluating annual mammography screening for young women with a family history of breast cancer, 2006). In particular, it has been found that “faster growing, more aggressive breast tumours tend to be found in women with a family history diagnosed with breast cancer in their 40s, and for screening to be effective in this group, it would necessarily involve annual invitation” (The challenge of evaluating annual mammography screening for young women with a family history of breast cancer, 2006, p. 177). In this respect, thought there is a greater concern with the women whose cancer probability is low, yet the risk of cancer exist.
After a thorough evaluation of the research finding, it can be stated that women of premenopausal period must have mammography being one of the most efficient method for preventing breast cancer development. It has also been found that young women often lack access to health care services because deficiency of information about the diseases. Therefore, annual mammography of women under the age of 40 should be introduced on an obligatory basic because it can significantly contribute to risk management in Breast Reconstruction Units.
Axelrod, D. D., Smith, J. J., Kornreich, D. D., Grinstead, E. E., Singh, B. B., Cangiarella, J. J., & Guth, A. A. (2008). Breast Cancer in Young Women. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 206(6), 1193-1203
Blanks, R., Given-Wilson, R., & Moss, S. (1998). Efficiency of cancer detection during routine repeat (incident) mammographic screening: two versus one view mammography. Journal Of Medical Screening, 5(3), 141-145.
Bumpers, H. L. (2005). Breast Cancer Risks in Premenopausal Women: A Review. Current Women’s Health Reviews, 1(3), 261-271
Gould, J., Grassau, P., Manthorne, J., Gray, R. E., & Fitch, M. I. (2006). ‘Nothing fit me’: nationwide consultations with young women with breast cancer. Health Expectations, 9(2), 158-173
Haygood, T. M., Whitman, G. J., Atkinson, E. N., Nikolova, R. G., Sandoval, S. C., & Dempsey, P. J. (2008). Results of a Survey on Digital Screening Mammography: Prevalence, Efficiency, and Use of Ancillary Diagnostic Aids. Journal of the American College of Radiology, 5(4), 585-592.
Samphao, S. S., Wheeler, A. J., Rafferty, E. E., Michaelson, J. S., Specht, M. C., Gadd, M. A., &… Smith, B. L. (2009). Diagnosis of breast cancer in women age 40 and younger: delays in diagnosis result from underuse of genetic testing and breast imaging. The American Journal of Surgery, 198(4), 538-543.
Snapp, C. C. (2006). Diagnostic accuracy of digital mammography is improved in younger women. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 51(1), 59.
The challenge of evaluating annual mammography screening for young women with a family history of breast cancer. (2006). Journal of Medical Screening, 13(4), 177-182.
Yankaskas, B. C. (2005). Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Young Women. Breast Disease, 23(1), 3-8